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    History of Interiors French Renaissance

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    a French term for a luxurious townhouse or private residence of a French aristocrat
    a French luxurious country house or stately residence some distance from the city
    a French term appearing in the 15th century for a series of rooms in linear order where a person can progress from the most public room to the most private one
    an outer room where guests can wait before entering the chamber room
    a private room used for study or conducting business
    A refined apartment or living area within a large home or palace
    a representation of one of the architectural orders, yet rectangular and flattened against a surface to appear as visual support.
    the term used for masonry units at the corner of a building, characterized by its decorative element, such as rustication, color, material, and size
    a row of balusters topped by a rail, serving as a low parapet or barrier
    Typical Chateaux flooring
    most floors are wood in boards or parquet patterns. A few, particularly on lower
    floors, are of masonry or tiled.
    Typical Chateaux walls
    often white plaster. Other wall treatments include wood paneling, painting, and
    Typical Chateaux windows
    shutters provide privacy and light control. The few curtains, which are limited
    to wealthy homes, are functional, not decorative
    Typical Chateaux doors
    Doorways are placed where needed aren’t always symmetrical. Door panels
    usually match wainscoting
    Typical Chateaux Chimneypiece
    as a focal point, the chimneypiece is the largest and most important
    decorative feature of the interior. The projecting hood is decorated with classic and Gothic details, coats of arms, and/or royal and period motifs. It does not have classical proportions, but entablatures, pilasters, and columns can shape the design
    Typical Chateaux ceiling
    Beamed ceilings in dwellings are embellished with carving and/or brightly
    colored stripes, arabesques, and other repeating motifs. Coffers in geometric
    patterns are carved, painted, or gilded
    Caquetoire Chair
    conversation chair, arms made it easy to pivot from left to right, back is tall and slender- reminiscent of gothic verticality, barrel vault with perspective lines, seat- narrow in back and wider in front, follows the same curves as the arms, legs spaced closer in back and further apart in the front, continuous stretcher, legs- reference to classical architecture, terminates in a bun foot.
    Early Renaissance High Back Chair
    rectilinear, box like, high panel back and arms, makes reference to Italian barrel vault, pilasters, arms in baluster form, reference to fluting
    Early Renaissance Dressior
    cabinet, used to display platters, vases, central case is at eye level, use of the lozenge motif
    Middle Renaissance High Backed Chair
    lighter in form, open arms, severe and simple in form, down turning arms terminating in a ram’s head, use of baluster form
    Middle Renaissance Arm Chair
    severe and simple in form, open arms, down turning arms terminating in a ram’s head, continuous stretcher, legs were designed as slender, round plain columns mounted on bun feet, still using carving
    medallion on a chair back contains a carved human head in high relief
    Middle Renaissance Armoire a duex corps
    front and sides recessed, upper body is surmounted by pediment, use of columns, bun feet, easier to move in two pieces, walnut cupboard in two parts, use of classical forms, lower section wider than upper, heavily carved
    Late Renaissance Arm Chair
    severe and simple in form, open arms and carved solid splat, down turning arms terminating in rams head, legs joined by H stretcher, legs mounted on bun feet, open back with center piece-splat in back similar to Greek Klismos chair
    Late Renaissance Armoire a duex corps
    early 1600’s, made of walnut, rare piece that has lion paw feet, two parts- top is recessed on front and sides, relief carving
    How was the French Renaissance different from the Italian Renaissance?
    Rather than using the antiquities as inspiration, the French used the Gothic style mixed with the Italian Renaissance style. The French develop their own unique classical style that features less emphasis on rules and correct proportion than in Italy and more on inventiveness and surface richness
    In terms of characteristics, what did the French value over rules, rich surface decoration and proportion
    They value inventiveness over rules and rich surface decoration over proportion. Even as it becomes more formally and classically correct, French Renaissance architecture remains more lively, vertical, and picturesque than Italian design
    How was the Renaissance introduced into France?
    The Renaissance flowers during the reign of Francis I as the country prospers and life grows more stable. A new wealthy, leisured class demands suitable accompaniments to a more refined way of life. Francis I supports and promotes the arts and learning. He attracts many Italian artists, such as Leonardo de Vinci and Benvenuto Cellini, and scholars to his court and builds palaces in the Loire Valley and the Ile de France. The marriage of Henry II to Catherine de’ Midici of Florence enhances Italian ties
    What are the key concepts in terms of design and the French Renaissance?
    French Renaissance design concepts come from a Gothic heritage mixed with Ancient Roman, Renaissance, and Flemish characteristics. Gothic heritage provides a rich source of design inspiration and proves difficult to overcome. The French develop their own unique classical style that features less emphasis on rules and correct proportion than in Italy and more on inventiveness and surface richness
    What are the design characteristics of the French Renaissance ?
    The French regard classicism as an ordering system, hence, regularity, order and symmetry are common design principles that appear early and continuously. Climatic differences resulting from a colder climate and softer light distinguish French Renaissance as well. These differences include more steeply pitched roofs, larger windows, and prominent chimneys.
    Francis 1
    Who was the King who really brought the Renaissance to France?
    What kind of staircase is characteristic?
    Double Staircase- if one person is walking up and one is walking down they will not meet
    Fireplace mantel
    What was the most decorative feature in a French room?
    What did a typical French Bedroom look like?
    Large room and hardly furnished
    Bed sat on a dais
    Ceiling is beamed – painted and stenciled beams
    Walls are highly decorative
    Colors are rich and highly saturated
    Large fireplace
    Tile floor- terra cotta
    Hues appear in walls, bed hangings, beams
    What was the most expensive piece of furniture
    Beds- carving, highly expensive textiles, and gold embrodiery
    Edict of Nantes
    created religious tolerance and brought peace into France
    Louis XIII
    Who was a large patron of the arts in the Late French Renaissance?
    Who were the leading furniture designers in the Late Renaissance?
    Hughes Sambin, Jacques de Cerceau
    How did the interiors change during the Late Renaissance?
    Gothic forms are illiminated
    Rooms became more dignified and formal
    Enlarged wall panels- variety of shapes
    Moldings that form panels are large and heavy
    floors are either marble or parquet
    Heaviliy beamed ceiling – painted inside panels by Italian craftsmen

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