The wealth of the northern Italian cities that funded the Renaissance was gained mostly from?
The commercial and military Association known as the Hansa or Hanseatic League was created by?
Northern German coastal towns
The aristocracy of The 16th century was
To dominate society as it had done in the Middle Ages
Western Europe in the Renaissance was?
A decline in Serfdom
perhaps the most famous of Italian ruling women was?
The piece of Lodi served to?
maintain peace among the Italian states for 40 years
Renaissance humanists in Italy ?
Had occupations in schools and universities or as secretaries in city states or at the court of princes and popes
Humanism’s main affect on the writing of history was?
The secularization of the writing of history in the explanation of change over time
The development of printing in the 15th century
Ensured the literacy and new knowledge would spread rapidly in European society
Which of the following is true of the northern Renaissance artists?
There was an emphasis on illuminated manuscripts and wooden panel painting
After 1438, the position of the holy Roman Emperor remain in the hands of?
The Renaissance Popes did all of the following except?
Attempt to return the papacy to more humble times
The northern Christian humanists
Championed The study of classical and early Christian texts to reform the Catholic Church
In his “philosophy of Christ”, Erasmus emphasized
Which of the following best characterizes the popular religion on the eve of the reformation?
People sought certainty of salvation through variety of means including the veneration of relics and the purchase of indulgences.
For Luther, the only sure source of truth and the only reliable path of faith, other than justification, was
The authority of the pope
The peasants war of 1524-1525
Was strongly opposed by Luther who saw it as a social revolution from below against God’s divine order
Millenarianism is the belief that
The end of the world is imminent
“Bloody Mary” Tudor earned her nickname by executing more than 300
Which of the following are among the chief characteristics of John Calvin’s reform movement?
Predestination and the absolute sovereignty of God
That Jesuit missionary who propagated Christianity in India, Malacca and the Moluccas, and Japan was
During the 1540s the turning point in the direction of the Catholic Reformation was exemplified by
The Roman exposition in the creation of the index of forbidden books
In France, the politiques were
Those who placed politics ahead of religion in an attempt to end the wars of religion
All of the following is true of the edicts of Nantes except that it
What is in acknowledgement that Catholicism was the official religion in France
the importance of silver from the new world to Spain resulted in