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    Europe to the Early 1500s: Decline, Revival, and Renaissance

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    Late Middle Ages and Renaissance
    Hundred Years War
    Schism inside Catholic Church
    Extraordinary art of Renaissance
    Humanistic thought
    Otto I and the Revival of Empire
    Otto I “the great”
    leader of holy roman empire
    Defeated hungarians at lechfield *955*
    church under royal authority
    Cluny Reform movement
    monastery at clun
    taught that pope was sole ruler over clergy
    *western separation of church and state*
    *celibacy of the catholic clergy*
    Investiture struggle
    Issue of Lay investiture
    Pope Gregory VII vs. Emperor Henry IV
    Emperor wanted to appoint bishops, excommunicated by the pope
    confrontation at canossa
    Concordat of worms
    eventual compromise: emperor renounces power to invest bishops with rings and staffs, pope recognizes emperors right to be present and invest bishops with fiefs
    first crusade
    byzantine emperor alexius I Comnenus appeals for western Europe aid
    pope urban II
    motives: religion, wanted holy land, but also hot blood and greed
    papal promise of remission of sin
    sparked anti jewish riots in europe
    Jerusalum captured
    Later Crusades
    2nd crusade: dismal failure
    jerusalum recaptured by Saladin
    3rd crusade: failure
    frederick Barbarossa, HR emperor
    Richard the Lion heart, english king
    Philip augustus, french king
    fourth crusade: failure
    results: stimulated western trade and cultural interaction with the East
    Renaissance Art
    values of laity increasingly important
    more worldly spirit
    glorification of realism
    humans as a part of nature
    oil paints, linear perspectives
    Leonardo da Vinci- ideal of universal person (mona lisa)
    raphael(the school of athens)
    michelangelo (david, fresoes at sistine chapel, new style of mannerism
    Italian decline
    city-state cooperation ends
    invasion by french king charles
    league of venice kicks out charles
    louis XII invades again
    Pope alexander VI, very corrupt, helped louis
    pope julius II
    Niccolo Machiavelli- wrote the prince, obsessed with medici family, thought they could unite Italy
    Revival of Monarchy
    unified monarchies replaced feudal systems
    power centers around king
    taxes, wars, laws became national
    standing armies
    taxes- gabelle, alcabala, taille
    centralization in france
    france benefits from collapse of england in 100 years war
    defeat of charles the bold of burgundy

    King louis XI
    secured monarchy and centralized power
    harnessed nobility
    expanded trade and industry

    centralization in spain
    spain united by marriage of isabella of castile and ferdinand of aragon
    toleration ends with creation of inquisition
    under torquemada
    monitered muslims and converted jews
    support of christopher columbus’ exploration
    marriage of catherine of aragon to Henry VIII
    Towns and townspeople
    towns contained 5% of the population
    Charters given to towns by feudal nobles
    charters guaranteed towns safety
    gave them independence
    serfs took skills to the towns, found freedom, profit; chance for higher rank
    lords tried to bribe serfs to stay in countryside
    rise of merchants
    first merchants may have been serfs
    traveled together in convoys
    they were at first disliked, outside normal social groups
    formed own protective services, allied with kings
    schools and universities
    *bologna* first university
    paris was model for northern european university
    curriculum- scholasticism (no original thought)
    sense that truth was already known
    drew conclusions
    logic and dialectic were tools
    nobles- those who fight
    high nobility were great landowners
    lower were petty landowners
    arms were their profession
    nobility in economic and political decline
    plague and famine
    changing military tactics
    infantry and artillery instead of cavalry
    alliance of wealthy towns with king
    clergy- those who pray
    open estate by training
    two types of monks: franciscans and dominicans
    clergy who worked among the laity
    first estate
    peasants- those who work
    largest and lowest social group in middle ages
    labor supported welfare of all others
    owed lord certain amount
    two basic changes: increased importance of single family holding
    land in single family through generations
    conversion of serfs due into money payments
    revived trade, rise of towns
    Medieval women
    most women were workers in fields, trades, and businesses
    respected and loved by husbands
    girls were apprenticed in a trade
    worked in food , clothing, guilds
    could go to schools but no universities
    growth of england
    king dies-harold godwin chosen as new king
    william of Normandy
    battle of hastings
    creation of strong monarchy- anglo saxan tax system, practice of court writs, parleying
    balance of monarchical and parliamentary
    magna carta
    Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitane’s son
    king john signs magna carta
    limits on royal power
    rights of privileged to be represented on important issues like taxation
    rights eventually spread
    hohenstaufen empire (HRE = GERMANY)
    frederick I barbarossa
    reestablished imperial authority
    launched new phase of battle with papacy
    Frederick II- ward of pope innocent III
    german princes became petty kings
    frederick excommunicated 4 times
    collapse of german monarchy after his death
    establishment of electoral college
    phillip II the fair
    norman conquest- national monarchy
    french victory at bovines
    Louis IX- efficient french bureaucracy
    gave subjects right to appeal
    people associated king with justice
    saint thomas aquinas
    hundred years wars
    causes: dynastic, territorial, economic rivals
    english military superiority
    incompetent french leadership
    joan of arc
    consequences: devestated france, awakened nationalism, feudal monarchy to centralized state
    black death
    a weakened europe
    overpopulation (pop doubled)
    economic depression
    plague followed trade routes west (venice, genoa and pisa
    2/5 of europe dies
    death rates highest in urban areas
    black death consequences
    shrunken labor supply
    wages increased
    decline in values of noble estates
    prices high for manufactured and luxury items
    catholic church weakened
    nobility and church on the defensive, had limited power of monarchy
    Ecclesiastical challenges
    pope boniface VIII- unam sanctam
    conflict with phillip the fair
    papacy in avignon
    great schism- 3 popes, council at constance
    Renaissance in Italy
    bridge from medieval world to modern world
    transition best seen in italy
    italy gateway between east and west
    florence-center of renaissance: wealthy, but tremendous social tension
    cosimo de medici
    lorenzo the magnificent
    scholarly study of greek and roman classics and ancient church fathers
    rebirth of ancient norms and values
    studia humanitas- liberal arts program
    grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, politics, moral philosophy
    different than scholasticism in that the Humanists went directly to the original sources
    drew own conclusions
    renaissance thinkers
    francesco petrarch- considered father of humanism
    dante alighieri- vita nuova and divine comedy
    giovanni boccacio-decameron (about plague in florence)
    prince vladimir of kiev
    converts to greek orthodoxy (chooses between them catholicism and islam
    long standing ties to byzantine empire
    Kiev falls to golden horde, mongols bring stability
    Ivan III the great- ends Mongol rule, moscow becomes political center of Russia
    “third rome” after constantinople’s fall
    war of the roses- yorks vs. lancaster
    Henry VII- lancaster
    origins of tudor dynasty
    use of court of star chamber
    confiscation of land

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