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Europe to the Early 1500s: Decline, Revival, and Renaissance

Late Middle Ages and Renaissance
Hundred Years War
Schism inside Catholic Church
Extraordinary art of Renaissance
Humanistic thought
Otto I and the Revival of Empire
Otto I “the great”
leader of holy roman empire
Defeated hungarians at lechfield *955*
church under royal authority
Cluny Reform movement
monastery at clun
taught that pope was sole ruler over clergy
*western separation of church and state*
*celibacy of the catholic clergy*

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Investiture struggle
Issue of Lay investiture
Pope Gregory VII vs. Emperor Henry IV
Emperor wanted to appoint bishops, excommunicated by the pope
confrontation at canossa
Concordat of worms
eventual compromise: emperor renounces power to invest bishops with rings and staffs, pope recognizes emperors right to be present and invest bishops with fiefs
first crusade
byzantine emperor alexius I Comnenus appeals for western Europe aid
pope urban II
motives: religion, wanted holy land, but also hot blood and greed
papal promise of remission of sin
sparked anti jewish riots in europe
Jerusalum captured
Later Crusades
2nd crusade: dismal failure
jerusalum recaptured by Saladin
3rd crusade: failure
frederick Barbarossa, HR emperor
Richard the Lion heart, english king
Philip augustus, french king
fourth crusade: failure
results: stimulated western trade and cultural interaction with the East
Renaissance Art
values of laity increasingly important
more worldly spirit
glorification of realism
humans as a part of nature
oil paints, linear perspectives
Leonardo da Vinci- ideal of universal person (mona lisa)
raphael(the school of athens)
michelangelo (david, fresoes at sistine chapel, new style of mannerism
Italian decline
city-state cooperation ends
invasion by french king charles
league of venice kicks out charles
louis XII invades again
Pope alexander VI, very corrupt, helped louis
pope julius II
Niccolo Machiavelli- wrote the prince, obsessed with medici family, thought they could unite Italy
Revival of Monarchy
unified monarchies replaced feudal systems
power centers around king
taxes, wars, laws became national
standing armies
taxes- gabelle, alcabala, taille
centralization in france
france benefits from collapse of england in 100 years war
defeat of charles the bold of burgundy

King louis XI
secured monarchy and centralized power
harnessed nobility
expanded trade and industry

centralization in spain
spain united by marriage of isabella of castile and ferdinand of aragon
toleration ends with creation of inquisition
under torquemada
monitered muslims and converted jews
support of christopher columbus’ exploration
marriage of catherine of aragon to Henry VIII
Towns and townspeople
towns contained 5% of the population
Charters given to towns by feudal nobles
charters guaranteed towns safety
gave them independence
serfs took skills to the towns, found freedom, profit; chance for higher rank
lords tried to bribe serfs to stay in countryside
rise of merchants
first merchants may have been serfs
traveled together in convoys
they were at first disliked, outside normal social groups
formed own protective services, allied with kings
schools and universities
*bologna* first university
paris was model for northern european university
curriculum- scholasticism (no original thought)
sense that truth was already known
drew conclusions
logic and dialectic were tools
nobles- those who fight
high nobility were great landowners
lower were petty landowners
arms were their profession
nobility in economic and political decline
plague and famine
changing military tactics
infantry and artillery instead of cavalry
alliance of wealthy towns with king
clergy- those who pray
open estate by training
two types of monks: franciscans and dominicans
clergy who worked among the laity
first estate
peasants- those who work
largest and lowest social group in middle ages
labor supported welfare of all others
owed lord certain amount
two basic changes: increased importance of single family holding
land in single family through generations
conversion of serfs due into money payments
revived trade, rise of towns
Medieval women
most women were workers in fields, trades, and businesses
respected and loved by husbands
girls were apprenticed in a trade
worked in food , clothing, guilds
could go to schools but no universities
growth of england
king dies-harold godwin chosen as new king
william of Normandy
battle of hastings
creation of strong monarchy- anglo saxan tax system, practice of court writs, parleying
balance of monarchical and parliamentary
magna carta
Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitane’s son
king john signs magna carta
limits on royal power
rights of privileged to be represented on important issues like taxation
rights eventually spread
hohenstaufen empire (HRE = GERMANY)
frederick I barbarossa
reestablished imperial authority
launched new phase of battle with papacy
Frederick II- ward of pope innocent III
german princes became petty kings
frederick excommunicated 4 times
collapse of german monarchy after his death
establishment of electoral college
phillip II the fair
norman conquest- national monarchy
french victory at bovines
Louis IX- efficient french bureaucracy
gave subjects right to appeal
people associated king with justice
saint thomas aquinas
hundred years wars
causes: dynastic, territorial, economic rivals
english military superiority
incompetent french leadership
joan of arc
consequences: devestated france, awakened nationalism, feudal monarchy to centralized state
black death
a weakened europe
overpopulation (pop doubled)
economic depression
plague followed trade routes west (venice, genoa and pisa
2/5 of europe dies
death rates highest in urban areas
black death consequences
shrunken labor supply
wages increased
decline in values of noble estates
prices high for manufactured and luxury items
catholic church weakened
nobility and church on the defensive, had limited power of monarchy
Ecclesiastical challenges
pope boniface VIII- unam sanctam
conflict with phillip the fair
papacy in avignon
great schism- 3 popes, council at constance
Renaissance in Italy
bridge from medieval world to modern world
transition best seen in italy
italy gateway between east and west
florence-center of renaissance: wealthy, but tremendous social tension
cosimo de medici
lorenzo the magnificent
scholarly study of greek and roman classics and ancient church fathers
rebirth of ancient norms and values
studia humanitas- liberal arts program
grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, politics, moral philosophy
different than scholasticism in that the Humanists went directly to the original sources
drew own conclusions
renaissance thinkers
francesco petrarch- considered father of humanism
dante alighieri- vita nuova and divine comedy
giovanni boccacio-decameron (about plague in florence)
prince vladimir of kiev
converts to greek orthodoxy (chooses between them catholicism and islam
long standing ties to byzantine empire
Kiev falls to golden horde, mongols bring stability
Ivan III the great- ends Mongol rule, moscow becomes political center of Russia
“third rome” after constantinople’s fall
war of the roses- yorks vs. lancaster
Henry VII- lancaster
origins of tudor dynasty
use of court of star chamber
confiscation of land

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Europe to the Early 1500s: Decline, Revival, and Renaissance
Introduction Late Middle Ages and Renaissance Hundred Years War Schism inside Catholic Church Extraordinary art of Renaissance Humanistic thought Otto I and the Revival of Empire
2021-02-24 03:20:51
Europe to the Early 1500s: Decline, Revival, and Renaissance
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