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    Development in the First Two Years

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    Early child development is influenced by wide variety of biological and environment factors. Factors that influence a child both in positive ways that can enhance their development and in negative ways that can compromise developmental outcomes. An understanding of the rapid changes in a child’s developmental status prepares parents and caregivers to gives active and purposeful attention to the child’s preschool years, by promoting a child early learning that will serve as the foundation for later learning. Children development can be differing, because no two children are alike. There different can be physical, cognitive social, and emotional growth patterns. They differ way can interact with the way they interact and respond to their environment. Some children are active while others are typically quiet. Children learn through their senses and through their interaction’s with people in the world through the senses (see, touch, hear, smell, taste) and construct meaning and understanding of the world. Parents or caregivers can provide activities and opportunities for infants and child that encourage exploration and curiosity to enhance children’s overall development. So, having an understanding of the sequence of development to prepare parent or caregiver the help and give the attention to the children.

    Proper nutrition is a vital factor in a child’s overall development. Prior to birth, a mother’s diet and overall health play a role in a child’s development. It’s important that women in their childbearing years to ensure they are getting at least 400 micrograms of folic acid daily. When considering development of health and disease early nutrition is essential to a child developmental outcome later in their life. But parent’s nutrition and levels of activity are just as important to encourage the child to lead a healthy life. Gender plays a biological factor in cognitive maturation in that boys tend to develop and learn differently than girls. The boys have lowered levels of school readiness than girls. It was found that boys with higher than normal androgen levels play and behave similarly to their male peers with normal androgen levels. However, the girls were with a high androgen level typically exhibit more gender-stereotypic male traits than do girls who have normal androgen levels. This was the effect of excessive amount of sex hormones on a child’s behavior. The prenatal period is a biological factor that can affect a child’s development. Prenatal factors affect linguistic development and how postnatal factors are the key components contributing to the child’s cognitive development.

    The condition of a child’s environment is an important aspect of how he or she progresses. Understanding the different aspects of the environment help ensure that a child is getting what they need to grow and develop optimally as helping recognize a potential problem. Brain structures- A healthy child is born with billions of neurons, and as the child has sensory experiences, the brain forms synapses between neurons. Synapses are forming those that are not being used are gradually eliminated.

    Stimulation- When expect a child to develop, particularly in areas of cognition, if the child doesn’t be expose to new things. An inadequate learning opportunity are one of the biggest contributors to a disruption in development, but suggesting playing with open-ended toys, reading and playing games is a way to promote healthy development in your children.

    Socioeconomic status- Children who come from families with adequate finances are more likely to grow and develop to optimal levels? Parents who have more money can provide enough food to pay for an education and supply their child with stimulating toys, books and activities. Children who come from the lower economic strata might not get enough nutrition or opportunities to learn, which can interfere negatively with development (Martinez, E. 2017).

    Children from 2- to 6-year old are more often seriously hurt than 6- to 10- year old. Why are young children so vulnerable? There are many reasons, because immaturity of the prefrontal cortex makes young children impulsive, they plunge into danger. Unlike infants their motor skills allow them to run, leap, scramble and grab in a flash, before a caregiver or provider can stop them, their curiosity is boundless, their impulses are uninhibited. If children’s do something that becomes dangerous, such as lighting a fire while playing with matches, then fear and stress make them slow to get help. Preventing a child accident requires action from both adults and children. Injury control suggest that the impact of an injury can be limited if appropriate controls are in place, and harm reduction implies that harm can be minimized (Berger, K. S. 2018). Practices that are aimed at anticipating controlling, and preventing dangerous actives; these practices reflects the beliefs that accidents are not random and that injuries can be made less harmful if proper controls are in place. Young children are allowed to play to develop their skills, minor mishaps are bound to occurs. Children need to play, but communities need to protect them. A child with no scrapes may mean that the child is overprotected. But serious injury is unlikely to happen, for example, if a child falls on a safety surface instead of o concrete, or a car seat protects the body in a crash, or if a bicycle helmet cracks instead of a crack skull. Reducing harm requires effort from professionals and parents.

    Parent should always remember that the kitchen is a dangerous place for your child during meal preparation. Hot liquids, grease, and hot foods spilled on the child will cause serious burns. A safer place for a child while you’re cooking, eating, or unable to give him or her your full attention is the playpen, crib, or stationary activity center, or buckled into a high chair. It’s best to keep a child out of the kitchen while cooking. Children who are learning to walk will grab anything to steady themselves, to touch hot oven doors, wall-heaters, or outdoors gills. Never carry a child and hot liquids at the same time. Parent should be aware of their child that love to play in water. Never leave their child alone in or near a bathtub, pail of water, wading or swimming pool, nor any other water, even for a moment. Empty all buckets after each use. Keep the bathroom doors closed. A child can drown in less than 2 inches of water. Knowing how to swim does not mean your child is safe near or in water. Always stay within an arm’s length of your child around water. Parent should remember car safety; car crashes are a great danger to your child’s health. To prevent these injures use a car safety seat every time your child rides in the car. Be sure that the safety seat is installed correctly. The safest place for all infants and children to ride is in the back seat. Don’t leave a child alone in or around the car. Keep vehicles and trucks locked. Always walk behind your car to be sure no child is not there before you back out of your driveway. You may not see the child behind your car in the rearview mirror. The biggest threat to a child’s life and health is an injury.


    As an Early Childhood provider, it is a unique position to notice if a child is not developing through typical stages or milestones. It may be a possibility that a child has a developmental delay. The provider has the responsibility to discuss their concerns with the child’s parents right away. For example, if a child has a special need that may affects his or her development, the childcare provider could share these concerns about the child’s development. Share what you observe with the parents, and discuss what to do next. The provide should choose a time and place where them and the parent can talk. Be prepared for strong emotions, because parents may sense that it may be a problem, but have been afraid to talk to the provide about it. Be caring, supportive, and respectful, begin by saying something positive about the child, such as thing you really like about the child smile, tell about loving of puzzles that they do, or mention something positive the child did. Continue be understanding and to listen and offer help. Early childhood provider is keeping children of all ages safe and healthy whether the child is in the center-or home- based care they’re responsible is to insure safety both inside and outside the child care setting. It’s essential that an Early childhood provider to only provide a safe environment for children to grow, learn, and play, but also to have a healthy environment.


    1. Ruffin, J. N. (2009). Understanding Growth, and Development Patterns of Infants. Retrieved from
    2. Haddad, D. & Forman, J. MD. (2018) Biological Factors Influence Child Development, Retrieved from
    3. Martinez, E. (2017) How Does the Environment Influence a Child’s Growth and Development? Retrieved from
    4. Berger, K. S. (2018). The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence. Retrieved from
    5. Safety, Pediatric Patient Education 1- to 2-years: Safety for Your Child. Retrieved from
    6. Tips for Child Care Providers to Communicate with Parents their Concerns about a Child’s Development Retrieved from…

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    Development in the First Two Years. (2022, May 11). Retrieved from

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