Counseling v. psychotherapy is there a difference between the two? This paperwill attempt to prove that there are several differences between counseling andpsychotherapy. While Counseling And Psychotherapy Essay have several differentelements in each, the following information will also attempt to show the readerthat there are some areas where the two overlap. At times this was a confusingtopic to research. A fine line distinguishes the two topics and one must lookhard to see this line.
Definition of Counseling One survey taken by Gustadsuggests a definition of counseling where he included three key elements. Counseling is a learning-oriented process, carried on in a simple, one to onesocial environment, in which a counselor, professionally competent in relevantpsychological skills and knowledge, seeks to assist the client by methodsappropriate to the latter’s needs and within the context of the total personnelprogram, to learn more about himself, to learn how to put such understandinginto effect in relation to more clearly perceived, realistically defined goalsto the ` end that the client may become a happier and more productive member ofhis society (1957, p. 36). In lay terms counseling can be described as a face toface relationship, having goals to help a client to learn or acquire new skillswhich will enable them to cope and adjust to life situations. The focus is tohelp a person reach maximum fulfillment or potential, and to become fullyfunctioning as a person.
Definition of Psychotherapy Psychotherapy is theprocess inwhich a therapists assists the client in re-organizing his or herpersonality. The therapist also helps the client integrate insights intoeveryday behavior. Psychotherapy can be defined as ;more inclusivere-education of the individual; (Brammer; Shostrom,1977). Objectives ofcounseling The objectives of counseling according to the Committee onDefinition, Division of Counseling Psychology, American PsychologicalAssociation are to ;help individuals toward overcoming obstacles to theirpersonal growth, wherever these may be encountered, and toward achieving optimumdevelopment of their personal resources; (Arbuckle, 1967). In a paperwritten by Dr.
T. Millard, it is stated that ;Counseling provides clarityand a positive and constructive venue for the individual to sensibly examine theinstinctive-emotional and rational (or irrational) motives which determine thedrive, content, and even the form of human conduct. ; This shows the partwhich counseling plays in a clients treatment. Objectives of psychotherapyAccording to Everett Shostrom (1967) , the goal of psychotherapy is ; tobecome an actualizer, a person who appreciates himself and others as personsrather than things and who has turned his self defeating manipulations into selffulfilling potentials (p. 9). Shostrom also feels that awareness is the goal ofpsychotherapy, ;The reason is that change occurs with awareness!;(1967 p.
103). Shostrom feels that awareness is a form of non-striving achievedby being what you are at the moment,l even if what you are means the phonymanipulative role that we all play sometimes for external support (1967 p. 103). Professional opinions Not all therapists feel that there is a distinctionbetween counseling and psychotherapy. C.
H. Patterson feels that it is impossibleto make a distinction, He feels that the definition of counseling equallyapplies as well to psychotherapy and vice a versa. Donald Arbuckle (1967) arguesthat counseling and psychotherapy are identical in all essential aspects. Othersbelieve that there is a distinction. Psychotherapy is concerned with some typeof personality change where counseling is concerned with helping individualsutilize full coping potential. IN Donald Arbuckle’s work he included LeonaTyler’s thoughts on the differences between counseling and psychotherapy.
LeonaTyler attempts to differ between counseling and psychotherapy by stating,;to remove physical and mental handicaps or to rid of limitations is notthe job of the counselor, this is the job of the therapist which is aimedessentially at change rather than fulfillment (Arbuckle 1967). Differencesbetween counseling and psychotherapy One of the major distinctions betweencounseling and psychotherapy is the focus. In counseling, the counselor willfocus on the ;here and now;, reality situations. During psychotherapy,the therapist is looking into the unconscious or past.
A psychotherapist islooking for a connection of past to undealt with problems which are now presentin the real world. Donald Arbuckle states, ;There is a further distinctionto be made. This involves the nature or content of the problem which the clientbrings to the counselor. A distinction is attempted between reality-orientedproblems and those problems which inhere in the personality of theindividual; (1967, p.
145). Counseling and psychotherapy also differentiatewhen it comes to the .