annonIn the United States in 1995 alone, 43,063 died from Breast Cancer Essay.
It isthe number two cancer killer and the number one cancer in females ages 15to 54. On average if a woman gets this disease, their life expectancydrops nineteen and a half years. This cancer is within the top threecancers of all woman above the age of 15, and comprises 6% of all healthcare costs in the U. S. totaling an astounding 35 billion dollars a year. An average woman is said to have a one in thirty chance of getting thecancer, but if that person had family history of the disease, theirchances have been measured up to a one in six chance.Order now
Sixtynine percentof AfricanAmerican women survive from it, and there are predicted to benearly two million new cases reported this year in the U. S. The disease isbreast cancer. Breast cancer is a group of rapidly reproducing, undifferentiated cells inthe area of the breast in women. The earliest changes occur in theepithelial cells of the terminal end buds (TEB) of the breast milk ductalsystem.
While the outlining steps of breast cancer are unknown, the cellsin the breast trigger a reaction of cell reproduction. These new cancercells form tumors. If cancer cells are active or are considered malign,the tumor grows at tremendous speeds, and may end up in metastasis. Metastasis is a complex process in which cells break away from theirprimary tumors, and via the blood supply or through the lymph systemrelocate into other organs, thus spreading cancer throughout the body ifleft untreated. Generally, if a lump is smaller than one centimeter, it isconsidered benign, although every woman should consult her doctor aboutany unusual bumps or feeling in the chest.
One sign of breast cancerresults from ductal cancer in the breast. A once hollow open tube could becompletely clogged up with cancerous cells thus leaving an awkward feelingin the chest area. Other complications that result from this cancer andothers is on top of the clogging and cramming of the system, the body’sneed to not only supply for itself, but for the large tumors. Recently genes have been touted as a great cause of cancer. It now isthought among the medical community that while there are definiteenvironmental contributors to cancer, even those people who are exposed tofew carcinogens may suffer from disease that runs in their families.
Amongthe genes that is being heavily researched is the gene BRCA1. In one ofthe preliminary detections of this particular gene, over 250 Jewish womenwere discovered to have mutations with this germline allele, accountingfor approximately 13% of all breast cancer patients observed. Jewish womenin specific were used, as early on their was a definite pattern of breastcancer through the Jewish community especially that which lived in theUnited States. The specific mutation, 185delAG, was, ;strongly associatedwith the onset of breast cancer in Jewish women before the age of 30. ;Scientists thrived upon this new information of genealogical interplay, sothe New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) set out determined tostudy the overall effects of these genes, not only along familial lines,but also concerning the general population.
In an article printed onJanuary 18, 1996, germline alterations in BRCA1 were discovered in six ofthe 80 women surveyed with breast cancer but had no apparent familialhistory of it. Thus the scientists concluded that mutation was not limitedto women with history of cancer. In an article printed in the DallasMorning News, genes were sighted as a cause of five to twenty percentof all breast cancer. In that article, a gene known as p53 supposedlystalls reproduction, and can even cause a cell to ;commit suicide;. Othergenes that seem to accelerate growth to overtake and stick to proteinsincludes HER2, neu, and erB2.
;Ten years from now, you won’t go for aBRCA1 test,” said Dr. ShattuckEidens of Salt Lake city. “You’ll go for abreast cancer predisposition test. ; relation between serum estrogenlevels at a single time with links to breast cancer, but no evidence linksestrogen levels over an extended time to the risk of breast cancer, untilresearchers at the New England Journal of Medicine proposed a study.
Bone mass is a cumulative effect of estrogen on bones scientists say, andso the study focused on the more easily observed density and mass of bonetissue in women. Four levels were accounted for, and .