Get help now
  • Pages 2
  • Words 492
  • Views 510
  • Download


    Verified writer
    • rating star
    • rating star
    • rating star
    • rating star
    • rating star
    • 4.8/5
    Delivery result 3 hours
    Customers reviews 387
    Hire Writer
    +123 relevant experts are online

    Bipolar Disorder or Manic Depressive Illness Essay

    Academic anxiety?

    Get original paper in 3 hours and nail the task

    Get help now

    124 experts online

    Bipolar disorder Essay also known as Manic Depressive Illness involves outstanding mood swings. The individual has periods of depression, and periods when they feel either unusually good or pressured and irritable. It affects 1-2% of the population. Genetics plays a significant role. About 15% of children with one bipolar parent develop the disorder.

    Treatments include medication, supportive psychotherapy and occasionally ECT. Medications include lithium, anticonvulsant drugs (carbamazepine (Tegretol), valproate (Depakote), gabapentin (Neurontin) and lamotrigine Lamictal), antidepressants (such as bupropion (Wellbutrin)or sertraline (Zoloft)), neuroleptics (e.g. haloperidol) and benzodiazepines (e.g. lorazepam) Treatment choices depend on the type and phase of the illness.

    There is growing evidence that patients with less frequent and more intense mood swings respond best to lithium, while those with more than 4 mood swings per year respond best to the anticonvulsant’ mood stabilizers. When a person is acutely manic, they may require hospitalization. Antipsychotic and antianxiety drugs can help control symptoms during this period.

    The depressive phase may not respond as well to lithium and most anticonvulsants. While antidepressants can help, they carry a moderate risk of overshooting into mania; thus they are generally used with a mood stabilizer. One promising drug, lamotrigine (Lamictal), may have specific antidepressant in addition to anti-manic properties.

    Lamotrigine is usually increased slowly to minimize the chance that it might cause a rash.

    ECT helps severe depression or mania. It is most often used when medication doesn’t work or is unsafe.

    Lithium is a top choice for acute mania and for maintenance in classic’ bipolar disorder. Because of its narrow therapeutic range, blood levels must be monitored; also heart and kidney function (EKG, blood and urine tests). Medications such as diuretics, that block its excretion require caution.

    Anticonvulsants have an edge with rapid-cycling and mixed mood states (e.g. depression with racing thoughts). Except for gabapentin (Neurontin) and lamotrigine (Lamictal), they require blood tests. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) is monitored with blood levels; also CBC, platelets and liver function tests. Valproate (Depakote) requires CBC, platelet count and liver function tests; blood levels may be helpful.

    Lamotrigine (Lamictal) requires caution because of its association with a rare but dangerous skin rash (exfoliative dermatitis); risk can be minimized by starting with low doses and increasing gradually. Use lower doses with medications that slow lamotrigine metabolism (e.g. valproate). Gabapentin is generally safe and does not require blood tests.

    It is not unusual for patients to need more than one mood stabilizing medication for best results.

    Because bipolar disorders are generally recurrent, maintenance treatment is usually needed. This is especially true when there have been multiple episodes, a clear family history of bipolar disorder or symptom onset before age 18. Effective maintenance requires full doses of mood stabilizing medications and ongoing medical monitoring. Psychotherapy can help patients and their families understand the illness, can teach the importance of early relapse detection, and ensure compliance with medication. In therapy, patients can deal with past instability and prepare constructively for the future. .

    This essay was written by a fellow student. You may use it as a guide or sample for writing your own paper, but remember to cite it correctly. Don’t submit it as your own as it will be considered plagiarism.

    Need custom essay sample written special for your assignment?

    Choose skilled expert on your subject and get original paper with free plagiarism report

    Order custom paper Without paying upfront

    Bipolar Disorder or Manic Depressive Illness Essay. (2019, Mar 11). Retrieved from

    We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

    Hi, my name is Amy 👋

    In case you can't find a relevant example, our professional writers are ready to help you write a unique paper. Just talk to our smart assistant Amy and she'll connect you with the best match.

    Get help with your paper