The aspect of Bipolar Disorder Essay has been a mystery sincethe 16th century. It was rumored that Vincent Van Goughsuffered from bipolar disorder. There is a large group ofpeople suffering from this disorder, however there are nocauses or cures for it. Bipolar disorder impairs onesability to obtain and sustain social and occupationalsuccess. The journey for even a cause will continue formany years to come. Affective disorders are characterizedby a depressed mood, an elevated mood or an alternation ofdepressed and elevated moods.
The basic term for themanic-depressive illness is Bipolar disorder. There aremilder and heavier forms of each. A patient can be placed in two different categories of this disorder: dysthymicdisorder and cyclothymic disorder depending on how strongthe symptoms are with each individual patient. The use ofthe term primary affective disorder refers to theindividuals who had no previous psychiatric disorders orelse only episodes of mania or depression.
Secondaryaffective disorder refers to patients with preexistingpsychiatric illness other than depression or maniaBipolar affective disorder affects around 1% or threemillion people in the United States. Both males and femalescan become a victim of this disorder. Bipolar disorderinvolves episodes of mania and depression. The manicepisodes are characterized by elevated or irritable mood,increased energy, decreased need for sleep, poor judgmentand insight, and often reckless or irresponsible behaviorThese episodes can alternate with heavy depressionscharacterized with complete sadness with almost an inabilityto move, hopelessness, and agitation in appetite, sleep andmakes is hard to concentrate while driving. Bipolar disorder is diagnosed if an episode of mania occurswhether depression has been diagnosed or not (Goodwin,Guze, 1989, p 11).Order now
The common symptoms for a manicdepressive episode consist of elated, expansive, irritableor hyperactive mood. Their speech becomes hard tounderstand, they have ideas racing through their head, theyhave incredibly high self esteem, they rarely feel tired andthey are often involved in activities that could possiblyharm them. Rarest symptoms were periods of loss of allinterest and retardation or agitation (Weisman, 1991). As the National Depressive and Manic DepressiveAssociation (MDMDA) has demonstrated, bipolar disorder canparticipate in developmental delays, marital and familyproblems, loss of jobs and an inability to keep a steadyincome.
Many bipolar patients report that the depressionsare longer and come more frequent when the individual getsolder. Schizophrenia has commonly been diagnosed topatients suffering from bipolar and can be misdiagnosed formost of their lives. The speech patterns help doctors to seea difference between the two disorders. The first signs orsymptoms of Bipolar disorder usually occur between the agesof 20 and 30 years of age, and then are seen again in womenin their 40s. A typical bipolar patient will most likely experience eight to ten episodes in their lifetime.
However,there are those who have rapid cycling and can experiencemore episodes of mania and depression that succeed eachother without a period of remission (DSM III-R). The threestages of mania begin with hypomania, this is where thepatients are often very energetic , hyper and assertive. Thehypomania state has shown doctors that a person sufferingfrom bipolar almost feels addicted to their mania. Hypomania progresses into mania as the transition is markedby loss of judgment. Often, a paranoid or irritablecharacter begins to manifest.
The third stage of mania isbecomes clear when the patient experiences delusions withoften paranoid themes. Speech is generally rapid andbehavior manifests with hyperactivity and sometimesWhen both manic and depressive symptoms occur at thesame time it is called a mixed episode. These people are aspecial risk because of the combination of hopelessness,agitation and anxiety make them feel like they “could jumpout of their skin”(Hirschfeld, 1995). Up to 50% of allpatients with mania have a mixture of depressed moods. Patients report feeling very dysphoric, depressed andunhappy yet exhibit the energy associated with mania. Rapidcycling mania is another symptom of bipolar disorder.
Maniamay be present with four or more distinct episodes within a12 month period. There is now evidence to suggest thatsometimes rapid cycling may be a transient manifestation ofthe bipolar disorder. This form of the disease experiencesmore episodes of mania and depression than bipolar. Lithium has been the primary treatment of bipolardisorder since its introduction in the 1960’s. It is mainfunction is to stabilize the cycling characteristic ofbipolar disorder. In four controlled studies by F.
K. Goodwin and K. R. Jamison, the overall response rate forbipolar subjects treated with Lithium was 78% (1990).Lithium .