Leave either one or two spaces after punctuation; be consistent throughout your entire work Assignments in ML do not use title pages, unless your teacher requires one; instead, all “title page” information appears on page I in the form Of a Header Setting up a Header in Word 2007 Choose Insert, choose page number, choose top of page (right side), type in your surname, add one space. Close Header/Footer right side. This Header Will automatically repeat on each page with sequential page numbers Jones 1 Thudded Jones Mr.. Spencer HIS JUJU 11 March 2002 Minor Characters in Catcher in the Rye Some novels focus on the life of one main character: some are told entirely from that character’s point of viewless This does not necessarily mean, however, that all the minor characters in the book are insignificant.
In fact, The four heading lines of ‘title page’ information should appear only on the first page. Each new paragraph should be indented one tab or five spaces. Do not put extra line spaces between paragraphs. Doe 2 it is clear that Fitzgerald is attempting to shed some light on the direction America was heading after the First World War, When the war ended, Americans wanted to forget the hardships and turmoil of the previous years and concentrate upon the youthful glory and excitement, which became characteristic of the Jazz Age. (adapted from McGee) “Jazz had been You MUST acknowledge the author(s) for any and all information you use in any kind of report, essay, or presentation that you do.
The purpose of documentation is twofold: to give credit where credit is due, and to allow your reader to track down your sources, Every acknowledgement has TWO locations/parts. 1. In-text Citation – acknowledgement tot a source used, placed immediately at the point where it is used ? after a quotation or after a paraphrased section. The bare detail (most commonly author’s last name and page tot the quote or information) of the source is given in parentheses and it directs the reader to the complete source entry which appears in the Works Cited. 2. Works Cited, Works Consulted, or References – the list of sources used with complete publication detail for each source. It begins on a separate page(s) at the end of your work. The first word(s) of each citation is/are the words used in-text, placed in earnestness.
Works Cited – includes all works which you cited within your work (ML style) Works Consulted – includes favors which you cited in your work and those you read, but didn’t make direct use of in your work (ML style) References – includes all favors which you cited in your work (PAP style) Your teacher will dictate which style is to be used for documentation. The two styles that are used most commonly are those of the Modern Language Association (ML) and the American Psychological Association (PAP). The in-text citation reveals the source that was used right at the point where it was used. This citation is alternately called a parenthetical citation or parenthetical reference. In parentheses you should provide the last name of the author. Fifth author is not named, the title of the article (in quotation marks) or the title of the work (in italics) should be listed.
The word(s) that appear first in the Works Cited, should appear in parentheses in your work with the page number of the quotation (ML 214-215) Writing Style and usage of Quotations set off from the text or run into it, quoted material is usually preceded by a colon it the quotation is formally introduced and by a comma or no incaution if the quotation is an integral part of the sentence structure” (ML 102). Shelley held a bold view: “Poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the World” (794). Shelley thought poets were ‘the unacknowledged legislators of the World” (794). “Poets”, according to Shelley, “are the unacknowledged legislators of the World” (734). ML 102) “Construct a clear, grammatically correct sentence that allows you to introduce or incorporate a quotation.. (ML 92) Lead up to your quotation by giving the speaker and the situation. Do not assume that the reader knows the exact part Of the book that you are quoting. Avoid the use of artificial phrasing such as “This quotation proves… ” Follow up your quotation by commenting on, explaining, applying, interpreting, or drawing a conclusion from your quotation. Do not leave the reader to do the work! Never move on to a new point or paragraph immediately after the quotation. Introduce and follow up on each quotation separately, Do not string them together. Avoid overly long quotations.
Try to pick out the essential part that proves your point, or is particularly vivid, apt, or relevant. Remember that quotations are not a substitute for argument. Your well- plopped argument is what will make a good essay and not a series of quotations strung together by ifs, ands, and buts”. Sentence punctuation is placed after the end bracket of the parentheses Short quotations of one to four lines are enclosed by quotation marks and incorporated into the body of the assignment Long quotations of more than four lines are set off from the body of the assignment by indenting the lines 10 spaces (or two tabs) on the LEFT side of the margin only. Type the quotation double-line-spaced, without using quotation marks.
Do not indent the first line of the quotation more than the others unless o are quoting two or more paragraphs. Shakespeare and poetry are an exception to the indenting rule ? see examples which follow Exception alert! In the case of a long quotation, its punctuation is placed at the end of the quote, before the citation’s parentheses If you leave anything out of a quotation, put in three spaced dots (an ellipsis to show the omission Do not put ellipses at the beginning or end of the quotation unless the individual sentence involved is incomplete. If you make any change in a quotation for clarity, put the extra words in square brackets, i. E. McKee states that “ consider if the monarchy is important to Canada” (45).
If there is a spelling error in the quotation you wish to use, you must write the word as it appears in the text and then put (sic)?which means “thus’- beside it in brackets, i. E. , Nanny Joe says “A connection (sic) between parents is essential” (62). If it is perfectly clear within the cadence of the sentence who the author of the quotation is, you can place just the page number (67) in brackets. It the author of a quote might be unclear in the cadence of the sentence, especially when more Han one source is quoted, do provide that authors last name in parentheses (King 157), Your teacher may require you to include the author of the quote in brackets, regardless. For two books by the same author, add the title (or a short form of it) in italics, and the page number– (King Parterres 203) and (King Juju 88).
For websites, place the author’s name only in the parentheses, assuming pages or paragraphs are not numbered. If the paragraphs are numbered on the site, indicate ‘par’. And the number Within the parentheses. If no author is listed, take another look to determine if the site is worthy of mention. If yes, use the title information by Which it is alphabetized in the Works Cited. Short Quotation with Author – Example: Wordsmith stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (263). Romantic poetry is characterized by the “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (Wordsmith 263). Paraphrase (instead tot quote) Wordsmith extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).
Corresponding Works Cited Entry Wordsmith, William, Lyrical Ballads, London: Oxford, 1967. Print. Long Quotation ? Example: Newly Dean treats Heathenish poorly and dehumidifies him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and had no more sense, so, put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr.. Rawness’s door, and there he found ton quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was Obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. Bronze 78) Long Quotation with unknown Author – Example: We see so many global warming hotshots in North America likely because this region has “more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change (“Impact of Global Warming” 6). Corresponding Works Cited Entry: “The Impact of Global Warming in North America. ” Global Warming: Early Signs. N. P. 1999. Web, 23 Mar. 2009. Authors with Same Last Names – Example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Miller 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller 46).
Work by Multiple Authors – Example: Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States (76). The authors State “Tighter gun control in the United States erodes Second Amendment rights” (Smith, Yang, and Moore 76). Multiple Works by the Same Author – Example: Lightener has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children (“Too Soon” 38), though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child’s second and third year (“Hand-Eye Development” 17). Citing the Bible – Example: Ezekiel saw “what seemed to be four living creatures,” each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle (New Jerusalem Bible, Seek. 1. 5-10).
Multiple Citations ? Example: In so doing the country denies the rights of their youngest citizens (Burke; Eagleburger), Adding/Omitting Words – Example for Adding Words: Jan Harold Branded, in an essay on urban legends, states: “some individuals make a point of learning every rumor or tale” (78), The ML Guide found in your library contains more examples of how to build a citation into your sentence. Shakespeare (and Poetry) – Examples When quoting Shakespeare list the act. Scene. Line(s). Use ordinary numbers with periods (no spaces) in between. (Act 1, scene 7, Lines 12-16) (l, vii, 1&16) (1. 7. 12-16) Long Quotation Quotations of four or more lines are handled as long quotations. Be sure to reproduce the quotation exactly, including the length of the poetic lines, capital letters, and punctuation Schmidt 3 that Macbeth is, at first, reluctant to murder Duncan.
He reminds himself: He’s here in double trust: First, as am his kinsman and his subject, Strong both against the deed: then, as his host, Who should against his murderer shut the door, Not bear the knife myself. (1. 7. 12-16) At first, Macbeth is very reluctant; it is only his “vaulting ambition” (l. 7. 27) that causes him to BOB ahead with the deed, If ambition had not burned Short Quotation Quotations of one to three lines in Shakespeare and in poetry, are handled as short quotations but a slash V) is used to show the start of a new line. Although Hamlet seems to be a man of action when he says “Haste me to Knott, that I, With Wings as swift / As mediation / May sweep to my revenge” (1. 5. 5-37), it quickly becomes obvious that he is WORKS CITED IN ML STYLE “Although the list of works cited appears at the end of your paper, you need to draft the section in advance, so that you will know what information to give in parenthetical references as you write (MAC 129). ” Begin this new document as soon as you begin taking notes from your first source – as a working draft. Worry about formatting it properly later in your process. At the end of your research and writing process, you can format this document. It will be added to the end of your assignment, If the text of your research paper ends on page 5, the Works Cited list begins on page 6 (ML 130).
The entries must be listed in alphabetical order, by the first letter of the first word, regardless Of Whether that word is the author’s last name, or not. The list is never numbered. Each citation begins with the author’s last name if at all possible If any information is unavailable (ex. Author), proceed to the next detail without it Begin each entry flush with the left margin; if an entry runs more than one line, indent the subsequent line or lines one-half inch from the left margin (MAC 131). ” Double-line-space been the title and the first entry. Continue to double line space the entire document. Place in quotation marks the title of the particular part/section (article, chapter, image, etc. ) within the work that you used.
Place a period inside the end quotation mark In each entry the title tot the work or website appears in italics List only the place tot publication which is geographically nearest to where you are If your teacher is likely to recognize the city of publication, you don’t need to include the state or province You can shorten the name of a publisher, leaving off Ltd. Or Publisher, for example If multiple publication dates are given, the most recent copyright or update information should be cited Identify in the entry the format of the source, i. E. Print. Web. Film. Television. Photograph. For a web source, the format is indicated before the date of access You can single space or double space after punctuation in the entries. Most important, be consistent with single or double spacing. Whichever spacing you use in your work, you should use in the Works Cited Your teacher has final say on all matters of format.