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    AP Euro Renaissance IDs

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    Jacob Burckhardt
    Jacob Burckhardt
    -19th Century
    -Switzerland
    -Historian who says revival of ancient learning, and moving away from christian church gave rise to new secular values.
    Quattrocento
    Quattrocento
    -1400s (Transition)
    -Italy
    -Italian word for 1400. Transition from late middle ages to early Renaissance.
    Serfdom says au revoir,
    larger nation-states & eradication of fiefdoms,
    more population,
    papacy gains power,
    urban centers,
    new merchants and trader class
    Leon Battista
    Leon Battista
    … something about architecture & On the Family
    Hanseatic League
    Hanseatic League
    -13th-17th Centuries
    -From Estonia, down the Baltic to Germany
    -an economic alliance of trading cities and their merchant guilds that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe.
    Cosimo Medici
    Cosimo Medici
    -1300s-1400s
    -Florence
    -Allied with other banking families and became the unofficial ruler of Florence. He ruled Florence from behind the scenes using his influene on the Signori.
    Lorenzo Medici
    -1450s-1500s
    -FLorence
    -Assasination of brother prompted him to be a cautious and determined ruler. Huge patron of the arts
    Castiglione
    Castiglione
    -1500s
    -Italy and all over Europe
    -Creates the idea of “manners, kills the middle ages attitude even more, “Renaissance Ideal”: well rounded in everything, appreciate the feelings of others, effortless way of showing education without bragging
    condottieri
    condottieri
    … some kind of army or something
    Peace of Lodi
    Peace of Lodi
    -1454
    -Milan, Naples & Florence
    -Peace agreement between these three city-states, and establishes boundaries between cities
    -Established a balance of power politics in Italy, rise of diplomacy, ends of warring Italian states, sets stage for the Renaissance to be able to happen (no war).
    Savonarola
    Savonarola
    -Late 1400s (after French invade)
    -Florence
    -Dominican friar who rallied against undemocratic government and secularization in Florence. Makes previously accepted homosexuality illegal, burns secular books, and turns Florence into a theocracy. Alexander Borgia is his main enemy. Turns out Florence is too secularized to have theocracy and decide to burn him at the stake oops
    -Reflects chaos of Renaissance, in city and individual, mezmerized by secular, clinging to old, instability of Italian city-states.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Girolamo_Savonarola#Leader_of_Florence

    Humanism
    Humanism
    -starts in the 1300s
    -Petrarch (Father of Humanism)
    -Italy, spreads to North
    -literary movement distinct from the writing of the Middle Ages. Considered writing a profession, drew on antiquity, wrote in Italian, and basically created the first European vernacular language.
    MANY different flavors of humanism.
    virtù
    virtù
    -around the spread of humanism, early 1500s
    -Italy
    -living up to one’s potential, succesful use of powers of humans. Women can have it, but mostly men.
    Leonardo Bruni
    Leonardo Bruni
    -1370-1440
    -Florence
    -First modern historian. Huge civic humanist. First to divide history into antiquity, medieval, and modern. “History of the Florentine People”. Translates many Greek and other works into Latin.
    Lorenzo Valla
    Lorenzo Valla
    -1400-1450
    -Different universities throughout Italy
    -Proves that the Donation of Constantine isn’t real. Latin scholar & translator. Founds textual criticism.
    -his textual criticism of religious documents is used later on to help ease people into protestantism
    hermeticism
    hermeticism
    some kind of cult that worships the god Hermes or something. sorry no sé.
    League of Venice
    League of Venice
    -1495
    -Includes Venice, Holy Roman Empire (Max. I), and Spain. Later Milan joins (Ludovico il Moro)
    -Ferdinand (España) gets mad at the French trying to take Italy (he wants it) and makes a power-alliance against them.
    Ludovico il Moro
    Ludovico il Moro
    -1490s
    -despot of Milan
    – After he joins the Peace of Lodi, he gets mad when Naples teams up with Florence and the Borgia Pope. So he invites the French to help him, which starts the French involvement in italy (NOT A GOOD IDEA LUDE.) Charles VIII invades Italy.
    Pope Alexander IV
    Pope Alexander IV
    -Late 1400s- Early 1500s
    -1490-1520 roughly
    -Wanted French favor to get control of Romagna, so he annulled Louis XII’s marriage to someone’s sister & made the archbishop of Rouen a cardinal. Withdraws from League of Venice, weakening them too much so they can’t resist a French reconquest, and they French come back into Milan.
    Pope Julius II
    -Early 1500s
    -Thouroughly secular papacy, raises renaissance papacy to hightest point, “julius Excluded From Heaven” by Erasmus, formed Holy League with Spain & Venice, Max. I & the Swiss.
    Concordat of Bologna
    Concordat of Bologna
    -1516
    -Bologna, Italy (Agreement b/w Papal States & France)
    -King Francis I de France & Pope Leo X
    -Reinstates Annates, kills the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, balances the power between King & Pope.
    1527 Sacking of Rome
    1527 Sacking of Rome
    Date and event that signaled the end of the Italian Renaissance
    Michaelangelo
    Michaelangelo
    -Late 1400s- Mid 1500s
    -Italia
    -Sculptor of the Pietà & David. Paints The Last Judgement.
    -Many artists tried to copy his style, which results in Mannerism
    El Greco
    El Greco
    -Late 1500s
    -España (he is Spanish, but he is born in Greece. Hence ‘El Greco’
    -Involved in Northern Renaissance, and he basically invented Mannerism.
    -Precursor of expressionalism & cubism
    Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
    Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
    -1438
    -Bourges, France (France & Papal States)
    -Charles VII de France
    -Affirms the supremecy of councils vs. popes (Concilliar movement). No annates. YAY! Forbids pope in French church affairs
    -French “Gallican Church” created. Still catholic, but they run the administration separate from Rome.
    Masaccio
    Masaccio
    -Early Quattrocento
    -Italy
    -First great painter of the Quattrocento. First to use linear perspective, and popularizes chiaroscuro & naturalism in painting. Paints “The Tribute Money” & “Expulsion from the Garden of Eden”
    Botticelli
    Botticelli
    -Mid-Late Quattrocento
    -Florence
    -Paints “The Birth of Venus” & “La Primavera”
    Donatello
    Donatello
    -Quattrocento
    -Florence
    -Scultor, bas-relief, made the “Homo-erotic” David with hat
    Brunelleschi
    Brunelleschi
    -Quattrocento
    -Invents linear perspective & Makes dome of Florence
    Raphael
    -Late Quattrocento
    -Florence
    -“School of Athens”, Part of the trinity of High Renaissance artists,
    High Renaissance
    -1490-Sacking of Rome (1527)
    -Italia
    -Word used to describe the types of art that appears during this period of time.
    Bramante
    Bramante
    -Quattocento
    -Introduced Renaissance style to Rome & Milan
    -Architect, St. Peter’s Basilica
    Northern Renaissance
    -(Very Late 1400s), 1500s, 1600s
    -France, “Germany”, German Low Country (Poland), Touches Spain & England
    -Függers are the banking family of Europe insead of Medicis, Spread from Hapsburg-Valois wars & printing press, More of a christian spirit than Italy. (christian humanism)
    Mysticism
    Mysticism
    -Northern Renaissance
    -Northern Europe, mostly Germany
    -Solitude = closer to god. They believed that they did not need the church for salvation.
    -Trandscends social institutions/ Paves way for Luther
    Groote
    Groote
    -Started in 1300s, continues into 1500s
    -Netherlands
    -“Brothers and Sisters of Common Life” similar to a monestary, but better. No vows, free to leave, they give a classical education to poor. Classical reading & modern devotion. Emphasize tolerance, humility & nice christian values.
    Jan van Eyck
    -15th Century
    -Flanders (Netherlands)
    -One of the first Northern Renaissance Artists. Uses oil paintings. “the Engagement”
    Albrecht Dürer
    Albrecht Dürer
    -Around the time of the start of the Northern Renaissance (late 1400s-early 1500s)
    -Germany
    -Self portrait of himself with Jesus
    Jerome Bosch
    Jerome Bosch
    -Mid 1400s- Early 1500s
    -the Netherlands
    -“Garden of Earthly Delights” fantastic imagery to illustrate moral and religious concepts and narratives
    Erasmus
    Erasmus
    -Late 1400s-Early 1500s
    -Netherlands
    -Moderation, against violence, “Praise of Folly” satirized the clergy, “Handbook of the Christian Knight” tells the prince how to be a christian and succesful in the world at the same time. Really high opinion of self.
    François Rabellais
    -1500s
    -France
    -Gargantua & Pantagruel, funny, allegory, making fun of clergy & educated people
    madrical
    -Voice musical composition
    -1520s
    -Italy
    New Monarchy
    New Monarchy
    -15th Century
    -Portugal, France, Spain, England
    -John I of Portugal, Charles VII of France, Louis XI, Isabella & Ferdinand (Spain), Henry VII of England
    -Unified their respective nations and created cnetralized government.
    -Paved the way for Age of Exploration
    Charles VII
    -1400s
    -France
    -Made the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, taille & gabelle,
    Francis I
    -1500s
    -France
    -rebrought the Pragmatic sanction of Bourges, First Renaissance pope.
    Louis XII
    -brought Brittany to France
    Ferdinand & Isabella

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    AP Euro Renaissance IDs. (2017, Sep 05). Retrieved from https://artscolumbia.org/ap-euro-renaissance-ids-14031/

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