AP Euro Renaissance IDs
-Historian who says revival of ancient learning, and moving away from christian church gave rise to new secular values.
-Italian word for 1400. Transition from late middle ages to early Renaissance.
Serfdom says au revoir,
larger nation-states & eradication of fiefdoms,
papacy gains power,
new merchants and trader class
-From Estonia, down the Baltic to Germany
-an economic alliance of trading cities and their merchant guilds that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe.
-Allied with other banking families and became the unofficial ruler of Florence. He ruled Florence from behind the scenes using his influene on the Signori.
-Assasination of brother prompted him to be a cautious and determined ruler. Huge patron of the arts
-Italy and all over Europe
-Creates the idea of “manners, kills the middle ages attitude even more, “Renaissance Ideal”: well rounded in everything, appreciate the feelings of others, effortless way of showing education without bragging
-Milan, Naples & Florence
-Peace agreement between these three city-states, and establishes boundaries between cities
-Established a balance of power politics in Italy, rise of diplomacy, ends of warring Italian states, sets stage for the Renaissance to be able to happen (no war).
-Dominican friar who rallied against undemocratic government and secularization in Florence. Makes previously accepted homosexuality illegal, burns secular books, and turns Florence into a theocracy. Alexander Borgia is his main enemy. Turns out Florence is too secularized to have theocracy and decide to burn him at the stake oops
-Reflects chaos of Renaissance, in city and individual, mezmerized by secular, clinging to old, instability of Italian city-states.
-Petrarch (Father of Humanism)
-Italy, spreads to North
-literary movement distinct from the writing of the Middle Ages. Considered writing a profession, drew on antiquity, wrote in Italian, and basically created the first European vernacular language.
MANY different flavors of humanism.
-living up to one’s potential, succesful use of powers of humans. Women can have it, but mostly men.
-First modern historian. Huge civic humanist. First to divide history into antiquity, medieval, and modern. “History of the Florentine People”. Translates many Greek and other works into Latin.
-Different universities throughout Italy
-Proves that the Donation of Constantine isn’t real. Latin scholar & translator. Founds textual criticism.
-his textual criticism of religious documents is used later on to help ease people into protestantism
-Includes Venice, Holy Roman Empire (Max. I), and Spain. Later Milan joins (Ludovico il Moro)
-Ferdinand (España) gets mad at the French trying to take Italy (he wants it) and makes a power-alliance against them.
-despot of Milan
– After he joins the Peace of Lodi, he gets mad when Naples teams up with Florence and the Borgia Pope. So he invites the French to help him, which starts the French involvement in italy (NOT A GOOD IDEA LUDE.) Charles VIII invades Italy.
-Wanted French favor to get control of Romagna, so he annulled Louis XII’s marriage to someone’s sister & made the archbishop of Rouen a cardinal. Withdraws from League of Venice, weakening them too much so they can’t resist a French reconquest, and they French come back into Milan.
-Thouroughly secular papacy, raises renaissance papacy to hightest point, “julius Excluded From Heaven” by Erasmus, formed Holy League with Spain & Venice, Max. I & the Swiss.
-Bologna, Italy (Agreement b/w Papal States & France)
-King Francis I de France & Pope Leo X
-Reinstates Annates, kills the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, balances the power between King & Pope.
-Sculptor of the Pietà & David. Paints The Last Judgement.
-Many artists tried to copy his style, which results in Mannerism
-España (he is Spanish, but he is born in Greece. Hence ‘El Greco’
-Involved in Northern Renaissance, and he basically invented Mannerism.
-Precursor of expressionalism & cubism
-Bourges, France (France & Papal States)
-Charles VII de France
-Affirms the supremecy of councils vs. popes (Concilliar movement). No annates. YAY! Forbids pope in French church affairs
-French “Gallican Church” created. Still catholic, but they run the administration separate from Rome.
-First great painter of the Quattrocento. First to use linear perspective, and popularizes chiaroscuro & naturalism in painting. Paints “The Tribute Money” & “Expulsion from the Garden of Eden”
-Paints “The Birth of Venus” & “La Primavera”
-Scultor, bas-relief, made the “Homo-erotic” David with hat
-Invents linear perspective & Makes dome of Florence
-“School of Athens”, Part of the trinity of High Renaissance artists,
-Word used to describe the types of art that appears during this period of time.
-Introduced Renaissance style to Rome & Milan
-Architect, St. Peter’s Basilica
-France, “Germany”, German Low Country (Poland), Touches Spain & England
-Függers are the banking family of Europe insead of Medicis, Spread from Hapsburg-Valois wars & printing press, More of a christian spirit than Italy. (christian humanism)
-Northern Europe, mostly Germany
-Solitude = closer to god. They believed that they did not need the church for salvation.
-Trandscends social institutions/ Paves way for Luther
-“Brothers and Sisters of Common Life” similar to a monestary, but better. No vows, free to leave, they give a classical education to poor. Classical reading & modern devotion. Emphasize tolerance, humility & nice christian values.
-One of the first Northern Renaissance Artists. Uses oil paintings. “the Engagement”
-Self portrait of himself with Jesus
-“Garden of Earthly Delights” fantastic imagery to illustrate moral and religious concepts and narratives
-Moderation, against violence, “Praise of Folly” satirized the clergy, “Handbook of the Christian Knight” tells the prince how to be a christian and succesful in the world at the same time. Really high opinion of self.
-Gargantua & Pantagruel, funny, allegory, making fun of clergy & educated people
-Portugal, France, Spain, England
-John I of Portugal, Charles VII of France, Louis XI, Isabella & Ferdinand (Spain), Henry VII of England
-Unified their respective nations and created cnetralized government.
-Paved the way for Age of Exploration
-Made the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, taille & gabelle,
-rebrought the Pragmatic sanction of Bourges, First Renaissance pope.