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    13- Social Hierarchies- What were the key social hierarchies in Renaissance Europe, and how did ideas about hierarchy shape people’s lives?

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    HIerarchies are
    -Descriptions of social reality
    -But they are idealizations
    -They Are how people imagined society
    Hierarchies built on
    -on orders of
    -Middle ages- Those who fight, prey, and work
    -Developed new ideas like
    -RAce, class, and gender
    Race in Renaissance
    -Race, people, nation used to describe ethnic, national, religious, and other groups
    Small amount of
    -Black africans in ROman Republic
    -Came with white slaves (spoils of war)
    Collapse of Roman Empire
    -Muslim Christain merchants still importing them
    Why merchants able to seize and sell african americans
    -Unstable African political conditions
    -NO protection from local authorities
    -Tradition sanction the practice of slavery
    15th century
    -Large amounts of black slaves in Europe
    Portuguese sailers
    Thousands of africans brought to Seville, Barcelona, Marseilles, and Genoa

    Mid 16th century…

    4-5 thousand to portugese a year

    10% people in Portugese cities were black
    3% overall population

    _______________ __________________common in Iberian Peninsula
    INterracail marraige
    _____________ ____ also in NOrthern Europe
    Blacks are also in NOrthern Europe
    Queen Elizabeth I of England
    -Complained too many black competing with needy english people for domestic jobs
    Black servants are
    -Black servants wanted
    -They are exotic and were even in Medieval times
    Italian Aristocrats
    -Had portraits painted with black page boys to indicate wealth
    -Venetians defied excommunication theats to get blak servants
    1491 Isabella of Este
    -Duchess of Mantua
    -Wanted a young black girl
    -Joined musicians, dancers, and acrobats as entertainment
    Africans also were
    – a labor force
    -In Portuagal, Spain, and Italy
    Agricultural laborors
    No largescale plantations of slavery yet
    Europeans didn’t know much about
    African Culture
    Remote place
    Stange people isolated by heresy and islam
    Culture underneath their own
    If they had contact with a black, they could improve them
    Wealth and Nobility
    While classes don’t yet
    describe socail divisions,
    the Idea of hierarchy based on wealth along with medieval concept of orders was there
    Most residents of a town are in the
    -3rd order, or those who work
    -This include wealthy merchants
    -Had richs and trade empires rivaling nobles
    -Merchants gained political power to match economic might
    Hierarchy of wealth is
    -easier to change then orders
    -Inviduals and familes could rise and fall within one generation
    However, this
    -Didn’t replace orders
    -Poor nobles had more power than wrich commoners
    Italian merchants bought noble titles and country villas
    -English or SPanish merchants marry sons and daughters to poor noble families
    -NObles had no srict boudary and took in the socail elite of the wealth
    Socail status links
    -Certain battle tactics more honorable
    -Citry executioner and brothel manager well paid but low status
    -Sumptuary laws refelcted wealth and honor
    -Merchants could have fur and jewels
    -Prostitues forced to wear yellow bands (flames of hell)
    Gender roles
    Debate about women
    Debate among writers an thinkers in the REnaissance about women’s qualities and proper role in society
    Misogynist critiques
    Females are
    In answer, many authors
    Complied list of famous women who were
    -Morally correct
    Christine de Pizan
    -Defend women
    -Why are they secondary citizens
    -Why great philosophers, statesment, and poets were men
    -He wanted to see how gender was constructed
    Printing press invented, what is socail result
    -Debate on women grew
    -Works of writing very popular and translated in many languages
    -Peices that juxtaposed female virtues and vice popular
    Vituistic women
    Classical or biblical depiction
    Ex. Turtle or snail
    Vice ridden women
    COntemporary cloths
    Ex. Wives beating husbands
    16th century
    Debate on female rulers
    -If born into a royal family and educated on how to rule, are women allowed to?
    -Is gender or rant more important?
    -While women were thought to be less effective than men, there were no rebellions on female rulers
    Queen elizabeth I
    -Showed masculine qualities when in public
    -Actions of men effected
    If you are of an age and status that allowed you to rule, but remained unmarried, you could not participate like other men could
    Ex. In Venice, unmarried men couldn’t join a ruling council
    Women are
    -married or to be married
    -Even if they work to gain economic stability
    -Work less valued, often earning ⅔ of what males to for the same work
    Gender roles overall
    -Men dominant
    -Served as a symbol of a proper society
    If not this way, peiple thought it woudl be threatening disorder
    -Gender is the most neutral aspect of renaissance hierarchy and the most important to defend

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