I wanted to identify the ways there is gender discrimination present in the workforce. This was important because as someone who is going to be entering the workforce soon I needed to know what injustices I may experience. The gender discrimination is very present in the workforce. Women are treated less than men. They are thought as not worthy of hiring or keeping as an employee. Many overqualified people will make wonderful additions to companies, but stereotypes and preconceived notions only prevent it from happening there are many injustices that people may face. Whether it pertains to race, ethnicity, or sexual orientation, there is discrimination that will be present to those who are not in power. While people face difficulties during the employment process, some difficulties come following employment.
Keywords: Discrimination, Gender, Workplace
Bansak, C., Graham, M., & Zebedee, A. (2012). Business cycles and gender diversification: An analysis of establishment-level gender dissimilarity. American Economic Review, 102(3), 561-565.
This article is based on the study of the number of job losses comparing men and women. It specifically focuses on men’s job losses. The study is further focusesd on when there is an economic downfall. It is stated that it is more likely for men rather than women to lose their jobs during these times. It also focuses on the impacts different gender in these workspaces; whether it decreases the gender discrimination in the market. The main reason why men tend to lose their jobs first is because of the type of job they have. During the recession men working in “manufacturing and construction, while women are often situated in recession-resistant fields such as education and health care” (Bansak, Graham, & Zebedee, p. 561). However, women tend to not have a permanent position which makes them the first to be removed from the company. This compares the employment rate and the rate at which people are laid off. There is research conducted to see how downsizing the number of employees influence the number of males and females remain in the company.
I found this useful because it shows data that will help me to analyze how gender related to the hiring process and the firing process. The concluding results made in the research shows that there is an increase in segregation during the economic downfall. It states the females take more part in jobs during this time. This article will help me to argue that there is gender discrimination in the workplace.
Bobbitt-Zeher, D. (2011). Gender discrimination at work: Connecting gender stereotypes, institutional policies, and gender composition of workplace. Gender & Society, 25(6), 764-786.
This article is about how gender stereotypes influence workplace discrimination and how these discriminations affect the workplace system. One reason is culture, each culture has its stereotypes and roles a person is supposed to fulfill. These roles create expectations that create discrimination in the workplace. It explores how policies implement gender discrimination rules which allow such things to happen. Someone these policies validate male privileges. This can lead to harassment and other discomforts. It stated that an increase of women in the workplace can lead to more harassment towards women because men feel like they are losing their power. These men are the ones who set the decisions pertain rules, employment, and wages. There are also short narratives of women’s experiences with gender discrimination in their profession. These narratives show how stereotypes limit the person from doing something. This article also explores the double standards set for women and men. If they were to commit the same thing, then they would receive different punishments.
I picked this article because explores the types of discrimination that people face in the workplace. It shows how each element of the workplace intertwines with each other to create an unequal working environment. This article shows data to show the correlation of each element and its affects in implementing the negative stereotypes.
Cundiff, J., & Vescio, T. (2016). gender stereotypes influence how people explain gender disparities in the workplace. Sex Roles, 75(3-4), 126-138.
The authors of this article wrote about the ways ‘stereotypes influence explanations for group disparities in ways that justify existing social arrangements as fair, just, and legitimate,’ (Cundiff & Vescio, 2016, p. 126). The authors tried to find out how someone’s thought process can influence these discriminations in the workplace. They try to see if stereotypes promote or hinder gendered discriminations in the workplace. They believe that there is an influence that stereotypes have on gender discrimination. They also explore how denying that there are stereotypes and gender discrimination is implementing social inequality. The authors tried to identify who would implement these stereotypes, based on economic status, power, and incomes. The authors, Cundiff and Vescio focus, especially on the male-dominated STEM field. It shows the number of underrepresented women in each field of STEM. They concluded that stereotypes do influence discrimination.
I picked this article because it researched who would implement gender stereotypes. There were two experimental studies conducted in this article to examine the relationships between the stereotypes and the discrimination that is conducted. I picked this article because the math and science field are mainly male dominated. This article explores women in this field which is relevant to society today. As more females are entering this field, more women would experience discrimination due to the stereotypes of being bad at math and science.
Hillock, S. (2012). Conceptualizations and experiences of oppression: Gender differences. Affilia, 27(1), 38-50.
This article is research done using a qualitative method. It is composed of interviews of men and women working in the social field, talking about their experience with oppression. Hillock ‘ analyzed the participants’ responses to explore gender, class, racial, and cultural similarities and differences in their conceptualizations, articulations, and experiences of oppression,’ (Hillock, 2012, p. 38). This article focusses on the idea of oppression in the workplace. It talks about sexism, ageism, classism, and racism and how it affects the way people interact with each other. The men that the author interviewed, had a hard time identifying the times when they were oppressed. Some stated times they may have been oppressed but did not recognize it as being oppressed. The author further goes into the idea of white privilege and male denial. Hillock explains that men and women think differently. Both men and women are not aware that they are treating the other with authority or falling into submission. Women and men experience things differently because their thinking process is different, they grew up differently, were raised to not know.
This article’s main idea is how oppression hides the gender differences that people experience. Many do not know they are being oppressed because they do not know what it is because they grew up that way. It argues that people need to acknowledge that discrimination and oppression are happening to make a change.
Lips, H. (2013). The gender pay gap: Challenging the rationalizations. Perceived equity, discrimination, and the limits of human capital models. Sex Roles, 68(3-4), 169-185.
This article is about the gender pay gap in the United States of America. It focuses on the wages that men and women get for the same job they do. Workforces like to argue that the gender pay gap is not due to discrimination but due to the different employments that are made between men and women. ‘However, neither ‘investments’ nor ‘outcomes’ can be assessed in gender-neutral ways and the model’s underlying notion of rational choices made against the backdrop of a gender-neutral playing field is flawed,’ (Lips, 2013, p. 169). The author uses the Human Capital Model in the article to back up findings. The author goes further into educational attainment and how that influences women’s income. It also explores the influence of age and work performance and how they influence the amount of income someone earns. The author further explores the citizenship status of workers and how it influences their wages. It is stated that it is a complex discriminatory system. Many ways can make the system an unequal and unfair system.
I picked this article because it is an important issue. Women and men who are doing the same job are getting different amounts of reimbursements. It makes no sense why this should happen. People work to earn an income, which is why the payment needs to be equal. As more women are speaking about the injustices of society, this is an important issue to make gender equality.
Mason, S. (2012). The unequal weight of discrimination. gender, body size, and income inequality. Social Problems, 59(3), 411-435.
The author explores how the growing trend of obese and overweight people are being treated in the workplace. As this is becoming a health concern it also becoming a concern in the employment and workforce. Overweight people are also prone to income discrimination. They are considered to be lazy and lasing self-control. Within the overweight people, women are more likely to face discrimination. The author uses laboratory results to identify the obese people as well as people’s personal experiences with overweight stigmatism. ‘ found significant gender differences in the prevalence of reports of height/weight discrimination (4.9 percent of men reported being affected by height/weight discrimination, while more than double that number of women—10.3 percent— did so)’ (Mason, 2012, p. 415). It is found that unlike obese men obese women tend to live in a lower socioeconomic status different from nonobese women. It is a result because of their appearance, it lowered their chances of getting married to someone with a high paying job as well as employment opportunities.
I picked this article because it pertains to the different standards a man and a woman have when it comes to appearance. A woman needs to be slim and fit to earn a higher wage. This article shows that appearance plays a role in the gender discrimination there is in the workplace. It shows how a woman’s appearance plays a role in how she can earn instead of her actual efforts in doing her job.
Palley, E. (2017). Pregnancy discrimination and the law: Implications for social work. Affilia, 32(2), 188-201.
The article explores motherhood in the workplace. It shows the problems the new mothers face in their place of employment. The author specifically focused on the legal aspect of pregnancy at work using the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 as well as a few court cases such as Young v. UPS. The author focuses on other legal rules such as the Affordable Care Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act that helps with women’s pregnancies. It examines the discrimination that women face when they become pregnant. Women may earn less after giving birth because it is thought that they will no longer be able to focus on their jobs because of their newborns. The author looks and examines these laws and rules relating to a woman’s pregnancy. Palley provides brief background information about pregnancy discrimination as well as the protections that were created.
I picked this article because this is also an issue today. More women are working to provide an income for their families. As women work they get married and also grow their families. As a woman becomes a mother she is limited to certain things she can do while she is pregnant. The author of this article examines the different cases that were brought up because a pregnant woman was no longer able to work due to her pregnancy. I also liked that the author provided the laws and their backgrounds that were used to protect pregnant women.
Tharenou, P. (2013). The work of feminists is not yet done: The gender pay gap—a stubborn anachronism. Sex Roles, 68(3-4), 198-206.
The author’s topic in the article is about the gender pay gap. The author states ‘the gender pay gap supports and maintains the lesser status of women in society and that it helps to preserve the status quo with respect to gender roles’ (Tharenou, 2013, p. 198). The gender pay gap keeps women from gaining more power. It prevents them from moving up the social ladder. This affects whether women can buy a house or save up for retirement. It becomes even more difficult for women to have an increase in their income if they are single or divorced. The author goes further into the topic by talking about the type of gender job there are. Based on the type of job that a woman as she will be paid differently. If a woman is aiming for a leadership position for a position in a male-dominated field she will be criticized even more. She will be criticized if she displays nay stereotypes of being a woman. If her work can be evaluated and overseen, she is most likely to be discriminated against at work. There are cultural aspects that play a huge role in the way women are treated in the workforce. They are mainly treated liked him because they do not women to gain power.
I thought this article was useful because it talked about the gender pay gap. It explains why gender pay gaps exist. Women were not aware of it in the past but have recently discovered the issue. It is stated that the gender pay gap is due to discrimination in the workplace which is why there needs to change.
Triana, M. (2011). A woman’s place and a man’s duty: How gender role incongruence in one’s family life can result in home-related spillover discrimination at work. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26(1), 71-86.
The purpose of this article is to explore the effects of women being the primary income earner while the men are secondary earners on their families. It is stated that ‘female primary wage earners are seen as the least overqualified and are given lower reward recommendations than equally qualified male peers’ while ‘male secondary wage earners are seen as being the most overqualified and are given higher reward recommendations than equally qualified female peers’ (Triana, 2011, p. 71). Women are backlashed for not conforming to traditional female jobs. They are viewed as not fitting in. The author conducts a study to examine who is the primary earner and who is the secondary earner. The author compares their qualifications and the recommendations that they receive. Triana does this to examine the possibilities of discrimination in the workplace. If a woman is not seen doing a female job they are looked unfavorably. Men think that women are not qualified to have the job they deserve.
I picked this article because it is interesting to find out the relationship between men’s and women’s qualifications with the amount they earn. This relates to the gender wage gap. They both involve economic inequalities. This article shows discrimination in the workplace. Women still face discrimination because of the old gender stereotypes that make men expect women to conform to.
Verniers, C., & Vala, J. (2018). Justifying gender discrimination in the workplace: The mediating role of motherhood myths. PloS One, 13(1), E0190657.
The two authors of this article talk about the discrimination a woman faces because of her family. This goes further into sexism and the old idea that motherhood hinders the work performance of a mother. ‘Overall, the findings shed light on how motherhood myths justify the gender structure in countries promoting gender equality,’ (Verniers & Vala, 2018, p. 1). They state that there are psychological and social reasons why this type of discrimination may happen. They explain that myths play a large role in the implementation of stereotypes. They explore the idea that sexism has a part in gender discrimination in the workplace. ‘Motherhood myths pathologized alternative mothering models, depicting employed mothers as neglecting their duty of caring, threatening the family relationships and jeopardizing mother-children bonding,’ ( Verniers & Vala, 2018, p. 3). Beliefs like these are the reason why women have a hard time with their profession. The authors do a study where they compare sexism, motherhood myths and opposition to women’s careers.
This article does data that was found in the author’s findings. There are comparisons of results from different countries in the same year. It shows much of an effect there is present in the workforces. There are also comparisons between males and females in each country.
- Bansak, C., Graham, M., & Zebedee, A. (2012). business cycles and gender diversification: An analysis of establishment-level gender dissimilarity. American Economic Review, 102(3), 561-565.
- Bobbitt-Zeher, D. (2011). Gender discrimination at work: Connecting gender stereotypes, institutional policies, and gender composition of workplace. Gender & society, 25(6), 764-786.
- Cundiff, J., & Vescio, T. (2016). gender stereotypes influence how people explain gender disparities in the workplace. Sex Roles, 75(3-4), 126-138.
- Hillock, S. (2012). Conceptualizations and experiences of oppression: Gender differences. Affilia, 27(1), 38-50.
- Lips, H. (2013). The gender pay gap: Challenging the rationalizations. Perceived equity, discrimination, and the limits of human capital models. Sex Roles, 68(3-4), 169-185.
- Mason, S. (2012). The unequal weight of discrimination. gender, body size, and income inequality. Social Problems, 59(3), 411-435.
- Palley, E. (2017). Pregnancy discrimination and the law: Implications for social work. Affilia, 32(2), 188-201.
- Tharenou, P. (2013). The work of feminists is not yet done: The gender pay gap—a stubborn anachronism. Sex Roles, 68(3-4), 198-206.
- Triana, M. (2011). A woman’s place and a man’s duty: How gender role incongruence in one’s family life can result in home-related spillover discrimination at work. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26(1), 71-86.
- Verniers, C., & Vala, J. (2018). Justifying gender discrimination in the workplace: The mediating role of motherhood myths. PloS One, 13(1), E0190657.