The analysis is really done to be used by the interior decorator and the client for future undertaking and hence, comparing between two or more edifices can be made.
This is brief undertaking cost information gathered from measures of measures.
Apart from the cost analysis, information such a brief undertaking specifications and the overall undertaking information are besides included in the ECA.
- 1 Purpose for ECA
- 2 Uses of ECA
- 3 Appreciation
- 4 Judgment
- 5 Belated remedial action
- 6 Planing
- 7 Abbreviations of signifiers
- 8 FORM 1 – Information on entire undertaking and analyzed edifice
- 9 Constructing type and Code:
- 10 Construction Classs:
- 11 A – 2 – 321
- 12 A – 321
- 13 3- Residential Buildings
- 14 Information ON TOTAL PROJECT
- 15 7 ) Undertaking inside informations and site status:
- 16 10 ) Tender List:
- 17 RM
- 18 Int/JV/L
- 19 RM
- 20 Int/JV/L
- 21 Area
- 22 11 ) Gross Floor Area:
- 23 GFA = 6156m2
- 24 GFA 321
- 25 FORM 2 – Summary of component costs
- 26 Entire cost of component ( RM ) :
- 27 Cost/m2 GFA ( RM ) :
- 28 Element Unit Measure:
- 29 Element Unit Rate ( RM ) :
- 30 Element Ratio /m2 GFA:
- 31 Reinforced Concrete ( M3 ) :
- 32 Reinforcement ( kilogram ) :
- 33 Formwork ( M2 ) :
- 34 FORM 3 – Brief Specification
- 35 BENEFIT OF ELEMENTAL COST ANALYSIS
- 36 Decision
Purpose for ECA
To demo the cost relationships between several sections/ parts of the edifice, if there are any.
To let comparings of cost with other different undertakings.
The cost that is obtained from the cost analysis is deficient to find the existent monetary value. It has to take into history the conditions and the inside informations of the undertaking and the quality and measure of work involved. The cost analysis has been introduced to supply cost information particularly for the procedure of cost planning.
The cost analysis is prepared by analyzing the information of a undertaking which has been planned or constructed in which the measures of measures have been priced. Therefore, the cost analysis is prepared based on the informations received from the successful stamp and is non based on the ‘actual ‘ amount of the undertaking. However, there are several grounds as to why the cost analysis is non prepared based on the ‘actual ‘ cost:
The concluding history is frequently complex and requires much ttime to analyse the alterations in the history. This would ensue in the decreasing involvement of the single fixing the cost analysis.
The readying of the concluding history is clip devouring due to several grounds and this could ensue in the cost analysis that is published to be out-dated
The historical information for cost planning may non be accurate particularly during high rising prices ( although there are processs to update this by utilizing indices ) .
It is hard to do allotments for the addition in cost and contractual claims, which are tailored to the single elements.
Uses of ECA
It enables clients and interior decorators to cognize and appreciate how cost is distributed among the functional constituents of a edifice and compared to the overall cost of a edifice.
It enables clients and interior decorators to develop thoughts as to how element costs could hold been allocated to obtain a more balanced design. This opinion is of import to estimate the effectivity of cost and quality of a edifice.
Belated remedial action
Allows remedial action to be taken on reception of high stamp, by uncovering the beginnings of over-expenditure that is by doing comparings between estimated costs and tender monetary value. This will enable tardy remedial action to be taken.
The cost analysis could be used as a beginning of cost information to assist with the cost planning of future edifice undertakings.
Abbreviations of signifiers
To simplify the amplification the writer will utilize the undermentioned abbreviations for each signifier.
Form 1 – F/1
Form 2 – F/2
Form 3 – F/3
FORM 1 – Information on entire undertaking and analyzed edifice
This signifier is divided into two subdivisions ; the first subdivision provides overall information on the undertaking including the location, the client, type of contract etc. The 2nd subdivision provides information and analysis of a individual edifice. Each separate edifice in the undertaking has a different analysis.
The chief intent for the information in Form 1 is to inform the user of the analysis the background of the undertaking and the status of its monetary value degree. This will enable the user to do the necessary accommodations to provide for differences in location, market status, type of contract, size of contract and specifications of the undertaking.
Constructing type and Code:
There are 10 categorizations on types of edifice based on ( C1/SfB Classification – Table 0 ) :
0: Land, Planning, Landscape
1: Civil Engineering Work
2: Conveyance, Industrial Buildings
3: Administrative Buildings
4: Health and Welfare Buildings
5: Refreshment, Recreation Buildings
6: Religious Buildings
7: Educational, Cultural, Scientific Buildings
8: Residential Buildings
9: Buildings, Spaces in general
Residential Buildings for this undertaking shall be classed under class 8: – Buildings, Spaces in general
Construction categories are divided into:
A: Reinforced concrete framed building
Bacillus: Steel framed building
Degree centigrades: Timber framed building
Calciferol: Light framed steel or strengthened concrete building
A – 2 – 321
A 2-storey strengthened concrete framed building with Gross Floor Area of 321m2 is expressed as follows:
The combination of a 2 floor hall edifice made of strengthened concrete framed building with Gross Floor Area of 321m2 is expressed as follows:
A – 321
3- Residential Buildings
3 ) Job Title: Cadangan Membina Sebuah Banglo 2 Tingkat
4 ) Location: Daerah Melaka Tengah, Melaka
5 ) Client: State the type of client whether authorities, private or semi government-Private
6 ) Tender day of the month: Date fixed for stopping point of tender- 7/1/2007
Information ON TOTAL PROJECT
7 ) Undertaking inside informations and site status:
Explanation shall include the undermentioned:
Handiness to site
Proximity of other edifices
Site topographical and geological conditions
Any skip or exclusion from undertaking
Example of amplification: The undertaking comprise the building and completion of 2 storey banglo and associated accessory edifice and external plants. The purpose site is level and in good status.
8 ) Contract: Type of contract used – Standard PAM Form of Contract ( with measures )
9 ) Market Condition: Brief study on market status shall be provided with respect to handiness of stuffs and labor, acuteness and competition – Market status is competitory and monetary value of labor and stuffs are stable.
10 ) Tender List:
List of stamps received. If the figure is excessively many, province at least the lowest five, arranged in falling order. The highest stamp value is listed last in the tabular array. Indicate whether stamps were from local builders ( L ) , by international builders ( INT ) , or by joint venture between the two ( JV ) . Mention to tender study.
If there are merely a few stamps, the list is as follows:
If the stamp list is extended, the list is as follows:
*The highest stamp value
11 ) Gross Floor Area:
Method of measuring:
Sum of all enclosed infinites carry throughing the functional demands of a edifice measured to the internal face of enveloping walls ( or column, door and the similar )
Enclosed infinites are defined as all infinites that have a floor and a ceiling and enveloping walls on all sides at full or partial tallness. Open bannisters, louvres, screens, columns and the similar shall be deemed enveloping walls.
The gross floor country is measured gross without skip to countries occupied by columns, internal constructions or party walls, etc.
Areas of lift suites, armored combat vehicle suites, engine suites and the similar above chief roof are besides calculated in GFA.
Sloping surfaces such as stairwaies, galleries, tiered patios and the similar shall be measured level on program
Spaces that fulfill the functional demands of edifice which are non enclosed infinites shall be shown individually under Unenclosed Spaces.
B & A ; L: Measured gross without skip to countries occupied by columns, stairwaies and dividers.
GFA = 6156m2
Useable country 231
Circulation country 32
Ancillary country 48
Internal divisions 10
FORM 2 – Summary of component costs
In general, Form 2 shows the systematic dislocation of the costs of elements of a edifice. There are more than 20 elements in Form 2 and each component is grouped under six group elements ( five edifice groups and one for each group component of external work and preliminary work ) . Form 2 provides information on the entire cost of component, cost per M2 GFA, element unit measure, element unit rate, ratio of component per M2 GFA, etc which could be used to do a realistic estimation and to fix the cost program for new undertakings. It could besides be used to do cost comparings to guarantee cost does non transcend the estimation.
Entire cost of component ( RM ) :
This is the entire cost of component and the cost shall follow the List and Contentss of component in the Manual. If cost is non related to the said component, ( – ) shall be inserted. If costs of more than one component are group together, brief notes shall be provided explicating where they are grouped. All the entire cost made from Bills of Quantities or calculated by EUQ x EUR.
WBLFF: Entire cost of component = EUQ x EUR
= 136 M2s x 125
= RM 17000.00
Cost/m2 GFA ( RM ) :
Calculated by spliting Entire Cost of component with GFA.
Frame: Cost/m2 GFA = Total Cost
= RM 255,200
= RM 795.016/m2
Element Unit Measure:
All countries shall be the net countries, for illustration, country for external walls shall exclude country of Windowss and doors, etc. if the measure is measured in volume ( air conditioning infinites ) volume is calculated by multiplying the net country with the tallness of the infinite to be air conditioned. The abbreviation used is Tm3. All the sum harmonizing to taking off or measured through drawings.
Element Unit Rate ( RM ) :
Calculated by spliting Entire Cost of Element with Element Unit Quantity. It is rounded away to the nearest ringgit.
Upper FLOORS: Element unit rate = Total Cost
= RM 8000.00
Element Ratio /m2 GFA:
Calculated by spliting Element Unit Quantity with GFA. It is stated to three denary topographic points.
Roof: Component ratio/m2 GFA = EUQ
= 204 M2
Reinforced Concrete ( M3 ) :
Measure of strengthened concrete in elements in M3.
Reinforcement ( kilogram ) :
Measure of support in kilogram.
Formwork ( M2 ) :
Measure of formwork in M2.
FORM 3 – Brief Specification
Form 3 provides brief information on undertaking specifications based on each component. It briefly describes the assorted constituents in each component including the types and quality of stuffs used. This signifier provides a brief image of the edifice criterions and quality and this information is of import for cost comparing intents.
It can be refer to the list and contents of elements. Elaborate briefly the specifications harmonizing to the elements. All the specification had made from Bills of Quantities.
For illustration of the specification in the elemental cost analysis, in stacking plants, the specification must hold all plants related to foundation stacking including sheet pile left in and besides necessitate to province the system used, whether it is advisers design or otherwise, figure, mean length and size of the heap.
BENEFIT OF ELEMENTAL COST ANALYSIS
ECA means the analyze of cost related to the elements, in building industry a edifice or any sort of building we can split into figure of elements, and monetary value of which is related with that component is called as an elemental cost, elemental costs include material costs, labour costs, and sub-contractor operating expense and net income.
ECA is besides of import and give benefits due to the companies that can intends to set up a cost information service by puting out ends and roll uping information in a planned and systematic manner in roll uping and distributing information on a figure of elemental cost programs available at the minute. These cost programs will farther spread out and users will be able to choose the database utilizing a scope of standards, among others, type of edifice, floor country, day of the month, client type, figure of narratives, location and method of building.
ECA does assist a measure surveyor when it comes to similar undertakings that are gone to be built following due to its characteristic that act as a mention about the monetary value or cost information that is utile to fix a budget program. Although it is approximately similar, the undertaking that is being compared to old undertaking ‘s ECA must be in the relevant scope of clip
The Elemental Cost Analysis ( ECA ) is relevant to used. The cost analysis is prepared by analyzing the information of a undertaking which has been planned or constructed in which the measures of measures have been priced. Therefore, the cost analysis is prepared based on the informations received from the successful stamp and is non based on the existent amount of the undertaking. That is the monetary value quoted in the Final Account. There is a possibility for some to believe that it would be better to analyze the existent cost as compared to the cost predicted in the stamp.