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    Tindall and Shi; The Dynamics of Growth and An American Renaissance: Religion, Romanticism, and Reform (Chapters 12 and 13)

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    a large wagon with broad wheels and an arched canvas top used by settlers to move west
    Mulberry Grove
    The plantation home of the widow of Nathanael Green, it was here that Eli Whitney developed his cotton gin
    Cotton Gin
    Invented by Eli Whitney
    This cash crop united the new southwest with the south, creating a bond that would go into the civil war defending the slavery which this crop depended on
    National Land Law of 1820
    This bill of congress in response to the panic of 1819 reduced the price of federal land, which one could now get as little as $100. This bill also introduced the idea of graduation, which lowered the prices of lands that would not sell
    Graduation Act of 1854
    Set exact amounts for unsold land’s prices to be lowered over 30 years
    Preemption Act of 1830
    This act allowed squatters to go again of land surveys and stake out their claims at the price of $1.25 per acre
    Jethro Wood
    Inventor of the first iron plow with separate replaceable parts
    John Deer
    Inventor of the first steel plow, setting off his revolutionary company that still is at the forefront of agricultural innovation today
    James Oliver
    Inventor of the first chilled-iron steel plow
    Cyrus Hall McCormick
    This Virginian invented the reaping machine for wheat, which allowed a 600% increase in production
    Philadelphia Lancaster Turnpike
    Was the first major tolled highway of excellent quality in paving and grading. This innovated road finished at the end of the 18th century spurred a turnpike bomb in the nineteenth century in the North East
    The first successful commercial steamboat, which appeared on the Hudson River under the direction of Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston
    The archaic means of river transportation, especially on the Mississippi River Routes, which was not able to return up river from New Orleans. Logically these were replaced in the 1820’s by steamboats for passenger traffic that could make it back up river
    Wheat, Flour, Bacon, Pork, Whiskey, Candles, Corn, meal, Ham, Lead, Copper, Timber, Ironworks, and Soap were all transported by this type of ship in the Mississippi region
    Erie Canal
    A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West. Because of the New York began to replace New Orleans as the port for western products
    DeWitt Clinton
    United States politician who as governor of New York supported the project to build the Erie Canal (1769-1828)
    The first clipper ship
    This type of ship was designed for passenger speed and were used to go to far off places such as transatlantic voyages, China, and San Francisco. They were not designed for cargo, and so fell out of favoure after the Civil War to ocean going steam boats
    Stephen A Douglas
    This senator of Illinois opened pandora’s box for railways spurred by federal incentives. He pushed and got a few thousand acres for a rail line from Mobile to Chicago, which reflected the support of turnpikes and canals by the government, just now for railways. However, it would unleash the monster that would culminate with the transcontinental railways of the 1860’s which totaled 20 million acres of land
    An instrument invented in 1832 by Samuel Morse that used electricity passing through wires to send messages over distances. It absolutely revolutionized communication, replacing turnpikes for communicational purposes to and fro large cities, which didn’t occur until 12 years later
    Charles Goodyear
    United States inventor of vulcanized rubber (1800-1860)
    Sewing Machine
    Elias Howe invented this machine in 1846, which would very quickly be replaced by Isaac Merrit Signer
    Samuel Slater
    He was a British mechanic that moved to America and in 1791 built in Pawtucket, RI the first American machine for spinning cotton. His ideas actually didn’t catch on until the 1807 Jefferson embargo. He is known as “the Father of the Factory System”
    This was the original name for Lowell, Massachusetts along the Merrimack River. Renamed Lowell in honor of the leading member of the Boston Associates who built the first factory system village at this town. Here every process in spinning and weaving cotton was mechanized.
    Lowell Girls
    In a textile mill at Lowell, Massachusetts virtually all of the workers were New England farm girls who were termed this. They were supervised on and off the job, and even escorted to and from church. They had few opportunities to express their discontentment regardiong their working conditions, but this was a very unique system. Most factory towns hired the whole many with paternalism running the system
    New Orleans
    This city was the fifth largest in America from its incorporation into the union. However, it began to lag behind Boston, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and super-city New York because it focussed solely on exports (especially cotton) and not on imports
    This city was the center of iron production due to its river location allowing both iron and coal to easily enter the city
    This city because of its river location became the center for meat packing for America before the railroad system deemed Chicago the meat packing center for America
    St. Louis
    Leader in the fur trade and an important rail stop for western settlers, this city challenged Baltimore and Boston for 3rd or 4th place in population by 1860
    The term for boxing in the 18th century, which was very popular and done with bare knuckles
    most popular form of entertainment in the early 19th century; seemed to enforce the stigmas of racism as it contained white performers made up as blacks for blackface minstrel shows
    Stephen Foster
    United States songwriter for minstrel songs whose songs embody the sentiment of the South before the American Civil War (1826-1864) His most popular song was Oh! Susanna, but he also wrote Way Down upon the Swanee River, My Old Kentucky Home, and Old Black Joe
    In 1854 14.5% of the population were these from 1845 to 1854. This was the greatest period of increase in these in American history
    Irish and German
    In the mid-19th century immigration bonanza, these two groups were the most populous, numbering around 9% of America’s total population in 1854
    Coffin Ships
    The ships that carried Irish people to The US after the potato famine
    Alexander T. Steward
    An Irish immigrant, this man became the largest property owner in New York City due to his department store empire, the largest in the United States
    The Irish were drawn to this political party and became a stable base of the party for years to come
    Due to the great influx of Irish before the Civil War, this denomination became the largest in America
    Ferdinand Schumacher
    This German immigrant was the quintessential german immigrant as he, unlike the Irish, was drawn away from the cities to the country where he made a very successful oatmeal company which would later become part of Quaker Oats
    Lyman Beecher
    President of the Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati, this man would create a mob to attack and burn the Catholic Ursuline Covent in Charlestown, MA in an attack to Catholicism. His work can be considered that of nativism, or a hatred of natives. This was common by many Protestants, especially evangelicals, in America as the irish brought previously discriminated Catholicism to America
    American Party
    Political organization that was created after the election of 1852 by the Know-Nothings, was organized to oppose the great wave of immigrants who entered the United States after 1846. Originated out of the Order of the Star Spangled Banner, which made its members say “I know nothing” when asked about the order. In 1854 the party owned Massachusetts and controlled most of the North East, including New York. It died out as slavery took center stage at the end of the decade
    Commonwealth v Hunt
    (1842) a landmark ruling of the MA Supreme Court establishing the legality of labor unions and the legality of union workers striking if an employer hired non-union workers. This overturned the president, exemplified by the 1806 decision by Pennsylvania that the shoemakers guild was guilt of a “combination to raise their wages”
    National Trades’ Union
    A society established in 1834 to federate city societies
    Due to the economic collapse of this year, all national unions failed as well as most of the local unions
    This party gained the majority in the Philadelphia City Council in 1828 as Jackson inspired more people to come out and vote, and became a quick local phenomenon around the country, but due to political inexperience the party could not last
    members of a radical group of New York Democrats organized in 1835 in opposition to the regular party organization. These were mostly laborers looking for their own party, which they did not in the Democratic party which they felt they should have
    Lynn and Natick
    Shoemakers in these two cities started the largest union protest in America before the Civil War in february of 1860. By the time it was concluded the strike expanded to all of New England and was q in raising wages, and in some instances was able to convince management to recognize the union as a bargaining agent
    Henry Day
    This man at the Western Reserve School of Medicine delivered a lecture titled “The Professions” which outlined the vital importance in America of professionals with specialized skills. He argued that America was dependent on such people
    This previously respectable profession lost its social stature as quackery untrained people ruined the identity of this profession
    Teaching and Nursing
    During the 19th century, these were the only two skilled professions that women practiced. All other women remained in the home or at factories which had only women as a work force for they were cheaper and usually single, such as the Lowell Girls
    John Astor
    The riches man in America in 1848, this man came from destitute origins as the son of a German official, yet quickly made a fortune on the western furs trade from which he gained the capitol to enter the New York real-estate and banking business, from which he collected his huge fortune
    Levi Strauss
    Immigrant from Germany who produced the first denim pants in San Francisco during the California Gold Rush.
    Cult of Domesticity
    The ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house. This view resulted in this phrase
    As the hellfire and brimstone Puritan god died in America to a benevolent god, this theology emerged. It is the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation.
    belief that God existed in only one person, and not in the orthodox Trinity; denied the divinity of Jesus; stressed the essential goodness of human nature rather than its vileness; believed in free will and the possibility of salvation through good works; God as a loving father rather than stern Creator; followed by Ralph Waldo Emerson; appealed to intellectuals whose rationalism and optimism naturally made them not support the hellfire doctrines of Calvinism (especially predestination and human depravity). Its religious figurehead was William Ellery Channing of Boston’s Federal Street Congregational Church. The movement remained relatively small
    The ethical system stating that all people should uphold certain values, such as honesty and other values that society needs to function, and that god shall save all people. It was a very anti-calvinstic movement lead by John Murray, but it remained very small
    After they were forced to separate from the Church of England, Anglicans adopted this name in America, yet still lost their place as the power church of the south
    Denomination of Protestant Christianity. Origin in evangelistic teachings of John Wesley. Originated as a split from the Episcopal Church. Originally it appealed especially to workers, agricultural workers, and slaves. Emphasizes that Christ accomplished salvation for every human being, and that humans must exercise an act of the will to be saved and low church in liturgy. It favoured a more structured chuch
    Timothy Dwight
    an American Congregationalist minister, theologian, educator, and author. He was the eighth president of Yale College, from 1795 to 1817. He helped spread the second great awakening across New England as he felt that his intellectual campus was a hotbed of infidelity
    John Wesley
    Anglican minister; created religious movement, Methodism; led to become missionary to the English people; apealed especialy to lower class; his Methodism gave lower and middle classes in English society a sense of purpose and community
    Plan of Union
    This was the agreement between the Presbyterians and Congregationalists to form a united church, as their doctrine was essentially the same. Therefore, New England became Presbyerianized and a hotbed for the Second Great Awakening
    A branch of the Protestant reformation that grew in Scotland, many of their ideas are rooted in Calvinism. They believed in a method of church governance where there were no bishops
    Dissenters of the Church of England; focused on the power of local churches; stresses following in example; each person interprets the Bible the way the Holy Spirit tells them how; emphasis on New Testament; no Church creeds. It was very simple and appealed to rural people
    Circuit Riders
    Traveling ministers who rode horseback over regular routes and preached messages of religious revival during the Second Great Awakening
    Francis Asbury
    He was an influential speaker who went around America and preached Methodism as a circuit rider. He was anti-Deist and was part of the Second Great Awakening.
    Richard Allen
    an african american preacher who helped start the free african society and the african methodist episcopal church
    Great Revival
    The spiritual revival that swept across the nation in the 19th century. It is also called the Second Great Awakening
    Phoebe Palmer
    A lay methodist woman who becomes the leader of holiness meetings intended to call Wesleyans back to original vision of holiness
    Lyman Beecher
    This anti-catholic stressed that the Great Revival should be expanded to all aspects of civilization, including slavery, drinking, prostitution, and war
    The angel that visited Joseph Smith who was the son of the prophet Mormon. This angel showed Smith the golden tablets of the Book of Mormon which had been left by Mormon when he came to America after the death of Christ.
    Mormon term for native americans, who are sinners because of their dark skin. At common of the Messiah, their skin will turn as white as holy Europeans
    Originally Commerce, the Mormons founded this Illinois town, which became an imposing and economically successful community.
    Meaning “The Land of the Honeybee” this is the proposed state of the Mormons, which would be replaced by the Utah territory after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
    Brigham Young
    The first Governor of the territory of Utah, assuring virtual independence from Washington for the mormons
    Joseph Smith
    Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. 1843, this man’s announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr in the Nauvoo Jail, which he had been placed in for treason.
    Immanuel Kant
    German philosopher, created critical philosophy from the ideas of Hume and Leibniz, ideas don’t conform to world, world can only be known as it conforms to mind’s structure, said morality requires belief in God, freedom, and immortality, although these can’t be proved, wrote “Critique of Pure Reason” which summarized transcendentalism
    a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
    A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830’s and 1840’s, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It went beyond the scope of reason It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions. Practicers of this belief studied all the religions of the world
    Inner Light
    A divine presence believed by Quakers to enlighten and guide the soul. Very close to the ideas of Transcendentalism
    Transcendental Club
    All these men had this membership in common: Theodore Parker, George Ripley, James Freeman, Henry Thoreau, Bronson Alctot, Nathaniel Hawthorn, Brownson, Elizabeth Peabody, Sophia Hawthorne, Fuller, and Ralph Waldo Emerson
    Ralph Waldo Emerson
    Originally a Unitarian parson, this man became an American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
    Emerson’s lecture at Harvard; encouraged American authors to develop their own techniques instead of using European ideas and cultural characteristics
    Henry David Thoreau
    American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs at Walden Pond, where he lived in isolation out of a shack. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
    Nathaniel Hawthorne
    Wrote the Scarlet Letter, The House of the Seven Gables, and Twice-Told Tales. Especially in the latter, this man emphasizes power moral allegories and sin with its consequences. Yet he does admit it is impossible to root out sin in the human soul
    Emily Dickinson
    wrote “Wild Nights–Wild Nights!;” “I Heard A Fly Buzz When I Died,” and “Because I Could Not Stop For Death–;” 19th century poet; major themes: flowers/gardens, the master poems, morbidity, gospel poems, the undiscovered continent; irregular capitalization, use of dashes & enjambment, took liberty with meter. She attended Mount Holyoke Female Seminary and never married
    Edgar Allan Poe
    American writer known especially for his macabre poems, such as “The Raven” (1845), and short stories, including “The Fall of the House of Usher” (1839). Suburb user of gothic horror and invented the detective story method of writing
    Walt Whitman
    American poet and transcendentalist who was famous for his beliefs on nature, as demonstrated in his book, Leaves of Grass. He was therefore an important part for the buildup of American literature and breaking the traditional rhyme method in writing poetry.
    Richard Hoe
    This New Yorker improved upon the steam Napier press, which transformed normal printing machines into monsters printing 20,000 sheets an hour in 1847. However common they were in the North East for their entertainment or in the west for their information for a penny each, newspapers did not make it south. North Carolina only had four while the Northwest Territory had 13
    Horace Mann
    United States educator of Massachusetts who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)
    Boston English High School
    This was the first free public high school, which came right before the 1827 law requires all towns to have a free public high school and all towns over 4,0000 to have college preparatory courses ind Latin, Greek, Rhetoric, and others
    Starting with this state, when statehood was granted all the federal government would set aside two townships for state universities
    The University of Virginia
    This school was the first to introduce a fully modern non-thelogy based curriculum which other secular schools would follow
    This school in Poughkeepsie, NY was the first women’s college to give prioity to academic standards
    This college was one of the first college to integrate blacks and women, however it exemplified the most western schools as being co-ed but very negative towards their own women. This including giving the girls maid duties or forbidding them from participating in graduation ceremonies
    Restraint or moderation, especially in regards to alcohol. This movement was lead by intellectuals like Benjamin Rush who scientifically studied the negative effects of alcohol
    Person who totally abstains from intoxicating beverages who were populous due to the temperance movement
    American Temperance Union
    The founding of this organization in 1826 signaled the start of a national crusade against drunkenness. Using a variety of techniques, the union set out to persuade people not to drink intoxicating beverages and was successful in sharply lowering per capita consumption of alcohol. It was an example of the spirit of reform that was so prevalent in the early 1800s, and it was less successful then it could have been as the extremists controlled the organization
    Dorothea Dix
    A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820’s, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
    Catharine Beecher
    sister of Harriet Beecher Stowe, encouraged women to enter the teaching profession b/c their “natural” role suited them to the care and nurturing of children. She combined the “cult of domesticity” with educational reform.
    Elizabeth Stanton
    as an American social activist and leading figure of the early woman’s movement. She is often credited with initiating the first organized woman’s rights and woman’s suffrage movements in the United States. She was the writer of the Declaration of Sentiments at Seneca Falls, which was a parody of the Declaration of Independence and alienate most of the people at the Convention
    Susan B Anthony
    Key leader of woman suffrage movement, social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association. Her works helped most states by 1860 to give women the right to property, beginning with Mississippi in 1839
    Seneca Falls Convention
    Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women for the first time, which makes it historic even though the Convention failed in its intensions of creating a nation wide movement
    Mother Ann Lee
    The founder of the United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing, or The Shakers. During the 1770s she emigrated from England to the town of Watervliet, New York to avoid persecution. The method of worship she and others followed was one of ecstatic dancing or “shaking”, which dubbed them as the Shaking Quakers. She founded the Utopian community of new Lebanon in NY, which continued to grow and prosper and send her message throughout the country
    This Perfectionist Utopian movement began in New York by John Noyes. People lived in a commune and shared everything, even marriages which were called “complex marriages”
    New Harmony
    This was a society that focusted on Utopian Socialism. It was started by Robert Owens but failed because the intellectual community could not agree on one plan of action. Robert Owen eventually dissolved the project
    Brook Farm
    A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle. It only failed after the main building burned turn in an accidental fire

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