nd CleopatraIn Shakespeare’s tragedy/history/Roman play Antony and Cleopatra, we are told the story of two passionate and power-hungry lovers. In the first two Acts of the play we are introduced to some of the problems and dilemmas facing the couple (such as the fact that they are entwined in an adulterous relationship, and that both of them are forced to show their devotion to Caesar). Along with being introduced to Antony and Cleopatra’s strange love affair, we are introduced to some interesting secondary characters. One of these characters is Enobarbus.
Enobarbus is a high-ranking soldier in Antony’s army who it seems is very close to his commander. We know this by the way Enobarbus is permitted to speak freely (at least in private) with Antony, and often is used as a person to whom Antony confides in. We see Antony confiding in Enobarbus in Act I, Scene ii, as Antony explains how Cleopatra is “cunning past man’s thought” (I. ii.Order now
146). In reply to this Enobarbus speaks very freely of his view of Cleopatra, even if what he says is very positive:…her passions are made ofnothing but the finest part of pure love. We cannotcall her winds and waters sighs and tears; they aregreater storms and tempests than almanacs can report. This cannot be cunning in her; if it be she makes ashower of rain as well as Jove.
(I, ii, 147-152)After Antony reveals that he has just heard news of his wife’s death, we are once again offered an example of Enobarbus’ freedom to speak his mind, in that he tells Antony to “give the gods a thankful sacrifice” (I. ii. 162), essentially saying that Fulvia’s death is a good thing. Obviously, someone would never say something like this unless they were in very close company. While acting as a friend and promoter of Antony, Enobarbus lets the audience in on some of the myth and legend surrounding Cleopatra.
Probably his biggest role in the play is to exaggerate Anthony and Cleopatra’s relationship. Which he does so well in the following statements:When she first met Mark Antony, shepursed up his heart, upon the river of Cydnus. (II. ii.
188-189)The barge she sat in, like a burnished throne,Burned on the water: the poop was beaten gold;Purple the sails, and so perfumed thatThe winds were lovesick with them; the oars weresilver,(II. ii. 193-197)And, for his ordinary, pays his heartFor what his eyes eat only. (II.
ii. 227-228)Age cannot wither her, nor custom staleHer infinite variety…. (II. ii. 237-238)In these passages, Enobarbus turns Antony’s and Cleopatra’s meeting into a fairy tale and leads the audience into believing the two are inseparable. His speeches in Act II are absolutely vital to the play in that this is what Shakespeare wants the audience to view Antony and Cleopatra.
Also, in these passages, Cleopatra is described as irresistible and beautiful beyond belief — another view that is necessary for us to believe in order to buy the fact that a man with so much to lose would be willing to risk it all in order to win her love. Quite possibly, these passages may hint that Enobarbus is himself in love with Cleopatra. After all, it would be hard to come up with such flowery language if a person were not inspired. Enobarbus may be lamenting his own passions vicariously through the eyes of Antony. This would be convenient in questioning Enobarbus’ loyalty, which becomes very important later on in the play (considering he kills himself over grief from fearing he betrayed his leader). The loyalty of Enobarbus is indeed questionable.
Even though we never hear him utter a single disparaging remark against Antony, he does admit to Menas that he “will praise any man that will praise me” (II. iii. 88), suggesting that his honor and loyalty may just be simple brown-nosing. Shakespeare probably fashioned Enobarbus as a means of relaying information to the audience that would otherwise be difficult or awkward to bring forth from other characters (such as Cleopatra’s beauty and the story of her betrayal of Caesar), but he also uses him as way to inject some levity and humor in the play, showing the characters eagerness to have a good time.
Evidence of this comes in Enobarbus’ affinity for drunkenness. In both Act I and Act II Enobarbus purports the joys of drink:Bring in the banquet quickly: wine enoughCleopatra’s health to drink. (I. ii. 13-24)Mine, and most of our fortunes,tonight, shall be — drunk to bed. (I.
ii. 47-48)He even caps off Act II with a song for Bacchus and a request for drunken celebration. In short, Enobarbus is used as any good secondary character should be; he relays information between characters, exposes other characters and their traits, gives background information, and lets the audience in on his surroundings and the general moods and beliefs of the times he lived in. He is not just used as a database however, through his speeches and his actions we find a fully developed person, someone with thoughts, motives, and feelings all his own — a character who can’t be summed up in just a few sentences.