Reconstruction Essay took place after the end of the civil war. The reason for reconstruction was to put the union back together and free the slaves once and for all. Reconstruction took three eras to be completed. The first was Lincoln, the second Andrew Johnson, and the third was the Congressional hard plan.
The Lincoln era lasted from 1863-1865.
On December of 1863 the decree of soft plan was introduced. The soft plan included amnesty for the southerners that took the loyalty oath. It also said a state would gain readmission into the union if ten percent of the states population took the oath and agreed to emancipation. (Reconstruction). This era ended on April 14 when President Lincoln was shot. He died on April 15 at 7:55 am, officially ending the Lincoln era of reconstruction.Order now
The next era of reconstruction was the Andrew Johnson era. The Johnson era went from 1865-1867. Johnson was a Democrat from Tennessee. He was a poor white man with no education and self-taught. He fought for free schools and property tax against wealthy planters. He was a slaveholder but indifferent he had more sympathy for white workingman.
He voted for the Homestead Act.
Johnson made two proclamations regarding reconstruction. The first was you would be granted amnesty if the loyalty oath was taken. Amnesty was not given however for 14 classes especially the 14th class, those who had $20,000 or more in property. The second proclamation was restoration. Andrew Johnson appointed scalawag Unionist William Holden as Governor of North Carolina.
He then appointed provisional governors who called conventions to repudiate secession, debts, and the 13th amendment. Andrew Johnson however was said to be soft. The reason for this was that he was too conservative and feared social reform and change. Another reason was Johnson being against radical republicans in congress. The last was his stubbornness, and the inflexibility of his personality.
The third era was the Congressional hard plan.
It was introduced by the 39th congress, which began on December 4, 1865. In the senate, Charles Sumner of Massachusetts put an emphasis on voting. In the house Thad Stevens of Pennsylvania emphasized equality and land. Republican moderates including Senator John Sherman of Ohio emphasized economics, railroads, and banks. There were three motives that drove the hard plan era one was the idealistic part, another the political part, and the last the economic part. (American History-Reconstruction)
The Reconstruction of the South in the years following the Civil War was also a failure.
Almost everything that the North tried to accomplish with Reconstruction failed. The blacks were freed from slavery, but they did not receive equal rights in any sense. The Republicans tried to prevent the reestablishment of the Democratic Party in the South and once again failed. Reconstruction was marked by much corruption and unstable government and did not actually accomplish much.
One of the major issues of the Civil War was slavery, and even with a victory by the North, blacks rights did not improve very much. Throughout individual Southern states, Black Codes were passed in state legislatures to repress the suffrage of black males.
All freedmen, free Negroes, and mulattoswith no lawful employment or business shall be fined and imprisoned In an effort to counteract these laws, the federal government passed the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. These Amendments were only effective to a minimal degree, because the Southerners found other ways to restrict the opportunities of blacks. Southern whites organized secret societies such as the Ku Klux Klan to intimidate blacks and white reformers. Often times, violence was used by these secret societies to express their views. These Reconstruction policies dealing with blacks were not very efficient, for blacks did not receive equal rights in America until the 1960s.
Another major issue of Reconstruction was to thwart the Democratic Party in the South.
This objective was only temporarily achieved, for once the North lost interested in Reconstruction and left the South independent, the Democrats reigned supreme in the South again. By 1872, almost all-southern whites regained their right to vote, so reelecting Democratic leaders was easily accomplished. In southern states with a black majority, once again the secret societies showed their influence. The Ku Klux Klan suppressed the black vote enough .