During the Gulf war, Kuwait was invaded by Iraq and by the terminal of it about all of oil production installations of Kuwait had suffered extended harm and had become defunct. Even after their Liberation in Feb, 1991 a big figure of oil Wellss were on fire. To reconstruct the state ‘s major beginning of income of the state a undertaking was taken to retrace these oil Fieldss. This was the Kuwait oilfields Reconstruction undertaking. Bechtel International was the undertaking direction house given the contract to pull off this Reconstruction undertaking by the Kuwait Oil Company.
Work of planning of the undertaking had started in November 1990 within three months of the start of the Iraqi Invasion, in the offices of Bechtel in London. Planning and forming activities were being done in the offices in London, Houston, San Francisco, Dubai and Riyadh even when the war was still on. Since the war was still on, there was small cognition of the entire extent of the harm to the oilfields and how much work was to be done. However those amendss that were identified boulder clay so were taken into consideration and front-end planning and procurance for the same had been started.
During the terminal of the war, the withdrawing Iraqi military personnels had set the oilfields on fire. Therefore to go on with the undertaking first it was necessary to convey these fires under control. The forces of Bechtel arrived in Kuwait 4 yearss after a complete expanse of the City was done by the allied military personnels. The chief nonsubjective so of these forces was to form and pull off the firefighting attempts. This was names project Al- Awada ( Arabic for return ) .
The vivid scenes shown by the newspaper, magazine, and telecasting studies came alive for Bechtel undertaking forces. The yearss were dark with fume from the fires barricading the Sun, oil droplets filled the air, clean H2O and healthful systems were non working, power workss were down, transit was minimum as tyres were a cherished trade good, and nutrient was really scarce. Initial adjustment was in refurbished ship quarters and in some vandalized flat composites without H2O and electricity, no more than a foam mattress on the floor, and a long hiking up a darkened stairway. In add-on to these jobs, dumbbell traps, land and H2O mines, undischarged shells and projectiles, and other munition had littered the state. The temperatures in summer systematically were above 50 I¦ C in shadiness ( rarely below 37 I¦ C at dark ) , exposing the people in the field to temperatures of 55-58 I¦ C in many locations, and hotter nearer to the fires. Merely supplying imbibing H2O was a major project.
John Oakland, senior frailty president of Bechtel Corporation, who served as the director of undertakings in Kuwait, remarked,
“ This run, which was good covered by the international intelligence media, was one of the most complex technology and building attempts in history. ”
However, the undermentioned assignment, which was the Reconstruction of the Kuwait oil Fieldss, was an even bigger and more ambitious undertaking. The undertaking of the Reconstruction of the oil Fieldss, which was named Al-Tameer ( Arabic for rebuild ) , will be discussed in this study.
Status of the Facilities
The province of the two million barrels per twenty-four hours oil export industry in Kuwait after the completion of the fire-fighting attempt was as follows:
647 Wellss had burned in entire, 751 Wellss were damaged.
Twenty-six oil assemblage, separation, and production centres were damaged or wholly destroyed.
One Marine export installation and its related individual point moorage was wholly destroyed, and the 2nd Marine export installation was partly damaged and out of committee.
The equivalent of 10 million barrels of petroleum oil storage tankage had been destroyed.
The Shuaiba refinery was wholly destroyed.
A petroleum unit in the Mina Al Ahrnadi Refinery was wholly destroyed. The remainder of the refinery was partly damaged and the refinery was out of committee.
The Mina Abdullah Refinery was partly damaged and the units were non operable.
All communicating towers and webs were destroyed.
Most of the working population had either fled or were in concealment.
After the successful completion of the fire-fighting attempt, KOC invited Bechtel to show its program for the Reconstruction of the oil Fieldss production and exporting installations damaged during the war, get downing work by November 1990. KOC ‘s end was to be able to bring forth 2 million bpd of oil by September 1992.
Planing and Organizing Phase
The planning and forming attempt for the Al-Tameer undertaking started with the Bechtel squad that was already on-site as portion of the Al-Awada undertaking fire-fighting attempt. An organisation wholly different from the Al-Awada undertaking was required to scope, estimation, program, execute, and bend over operational installations to KOC. This organisation had to be self-sufficing and be able to to the full back up and serve a monolithic work force of more than 16,000 people.
The chief organisation was divided into five chief maps.
One was to back up KOC ‘s future five-year budget planning with designation, scoping, and be aftering future undertakings. This was named KOC Major Projects Group.
The other four groups consisted of:
director Al-Tameer undertakings, responsible for all planning and undertaking direction, every bit good as technology and procurance
director coordination, responsible for scheduling, cost control, gauging, undertaking coverage, public and community dealingss, and other relevant maps
director services, responsible for supplying all the needed support services for the undertaking squad including explosive and ordnance destruction group
director operation, responsible for field executing of all the defined work.
A harm appraisal and scoping squad consisting of applied scientists, contrivers, and calculators walked every pes of the oil Fieldss production and exporting installations fixing a range of work, cost estimation, a program and agenda of work for each installation.
The planning was based on a dorsum to look scheduling specifying the day of the months and production ends foremost, working backward to see when the boring attempt and installations Reconstruction work had to get down to run into this end. This attack besides determined the needed work force and helped with direct hire and subcontracting programs.
The overall program defined the sequence of the work and prioritized the resources to do certain installations with least harm were first precedence for completion.
The maestro agenda was developed based on nine subproject organisation work dislocation constructions ( WBS )
Power, edifices, cathodic protection
South assemblage centres
West assemblage centres.
Figure: Al Tameer Organization
Each subproject holding its undertaking force, budget, agenda, and its precedence on resources identified was headed by a undertaking director. The Al-Tameer undertaking organisation chart is shown in Figure 1.
The squads were integrated with available KOC forces who performed some of the undertaking maps. Each subproject squad was supported by local functional directors to supply them with staff and resources to put to death the work. The key driver behind the program was run intoing the agenda and the production capacity.
The undertaking executing consisted of three chief maps: item technology, procurance, and building direction.
Technology and building squads worked really closely during the planning stage to find the best and most expedient manner of reconstructing some of the installations. This close coaction continued until building was complete.
More than 200 interior decorators and applied scientists worked in the stopgap undertaking offices at assorted sites, with strong cardinal support from a base that was set up in an old war-damaged miss ‘s school. This was subsequently transferred to a freshly constructed KOC technology edifice. Additionally, a squad of more than 200 applied scientists from assorted Bechtel regional offices worldwide provided uninterrupted support and specialised expertness.
The chief deliverables of the technology squads were building drawings, building bundles, and material requisitions and proficient command check. This attempt was non limited to oil production and exporting installations ; it included some of the necessary substructure required for the daily operation of KOC. Offices, warehouses, invitee houses, employees lodging, roads, power, H2O, etc. , were all portion of the range of the work. Because most of the original drawings and specifications were destroyed during the war, field studies and measurings had to be used. A entire technology attempt of 450,000 hours resulted in 4,500 major drawings.
One wholly new and to the full modularized assemblage installation ( GC-17 ) was designed and built in Houston, Texas, and shipped to the sites. Other installations were designed for rebuild based on their original construct, but modernized wherever possible. Some of the units were really old and were upgraded with the more modern versions of the equipment available. A more extended usage of distributed control systems and mechanization was one of the cardinal countries that were upgraded.
The undertaking procurance group was established in full force during the firefighting stage of the undertaking to supply resources for that really of import attempt. In the Al-Tameer stage the squad was farther expanded to back up the monolithic procurance and undertaking attempt that was required to run into the mark agenda. In add-on, stock list control and warehousing stuff were besides portion of the procurance squad ‘s country of duty.
The procurance squad was besides responsible for integrating all the stuff into KOC1s automated stuff and stock list control system. The procurance attempt driving the executing stage was centralized, and it was divided into three chief countries:
Material direction included buying, review, hastening, and traffic and logistics. Contracting included formation and disposal. Warehouse direction included cardinal warehouses and satellite warehouses.
The procurance squad had three chief ends within the undertaking ‘s overall aim:
guarantee the right stuff and resources were available in clip to run into the agenda
maximise the usage of available local resources to help in reconstructing the local economic system
guarantee certain concluding warehouse stock list met KOC ‘s stuff cryptography and designation system.
The size and the peculiar nature of the undertaking required that the procurance squad be divided between material management-reporting to the director of projects-and contracts management-reporting to the director of building. This agreement facilitated the communicating and direction of site contractors ‘ work with Bechtel ‘s direct hire building work.
Undertaking directors were responsible for development and processing of the stuff requisitions for their countries of duty. Orders over $ 100,000 required farther blessing by KOC ‘s director of the Al-Tameer undertaking. Almost everything required for the executing of the undertaking had to be imported from outside the state. At the early stages of the undertaking the port installations, usage installations, and other services required for the proper importing of goods and services were non working. Bechtel established a presenting country in Jebel Ali port of Dubai ( UAE ) to have, inspect, and accept stuff.
Using much smaller vass and boats, Bechtel so transported goods from Dubai to assorted Kuwait ports depending on handiness and lading size. This program besides included most of the air freighted stuff.
Because timely bringing of the stuff was critical to run intoing the undertaking agenda, a really elaborate stuff requisitioning program had to be developed placing every needed item. This program was so incorporated into Bechtel ‘s world-wide Procurement Tracking System ( PTS ) that enabled all Bechtel offices to supervise and follow through each order until it reached the site.
At ulterior phases of the undertaking when Kuwait ports and usage installations became functional the above agreements were changed and everything was imported straight into Kuwait. During this period more than 26,000 purchase orders were issued, and more than 520,000 dozenss of stuff were imported using 742 aircraft and sea-going vass.
One of the cardinal activities of the repositing direction squad was to integrate the assortment of stuff that was left behind after the war and the fire-fighting stage with freshly ordered and engineering-specified stuff. Besides, by continuously seting and supervising measures and specifications they could react really rapidly to exigency and out-of-schedule fortunes. The technology and warehouse both utilised a common package ( PCMC ) to place, turn up, and quantify most of the bulk stuff devising certain that when the stuff was required it would be made available instantly.
Although due to scheduled requirement Reconstruction of some of the flow line, all of the assemblage centres and supporter Stationss were performed by Bechtel direct hires, however more than 300 major building contracts and 650 equipment rental understandings were issued by the contract direction squad during the Al-Tameer undertaking stage.
The contract preparation squad worked as a cardinal group functioning all subprojects. The contract disposal group managed the disposal work more by map than by country. Undertaking directors were finally the responsible parties for the contractor work in their countries, having the necessary support and services from these two centralized squads.
Al-Tameer was likely one of the most ambitious building undertakings of all time managed by Bechtel. The work required proviso of labour, equipment, and support installations in 55 locations and in four different parts of the country-North Fieldss, South ( Marine installations and refineries ) , West Fieldss, and Burgan Fieldss. The work involved building of drill tablets ; roads for heavy rig transit ; good heads ; flow lines ; garnering centres ; gas supporter Stationss ; oil storage armored combat vehicles ; H2O supply, distribution and storage ; and marine export terminus and burden installations. In add-on, KOC ‘s ain substructure ( offices, lodging, nines and eating houses, warehouses and edifices, telecommunication, etc. ) had to be reconstructed.
Construction attempts were divided between direct hire building and subcontracted work. The entire range of work was divided into nine building countries, each managed by a field overseer. Each overseer was responsible for both direct hire executing every bit good as field disposal of the subcontractor ‘s range of work within his country. Construction overseers were supported by the cardinal building group that was the functional group back uping a undertaking matrix squad. Prioritization of resources and building equipment was one of the major maps of the cardinal building squad.
Field building squads were comprised of transnational forces ( from 36 states ) with wholly different civilizations, linguistic communications, and public presentation capablenesss. Catering and other cultural demands had to be addressed to guarantee each group could execute its map satisfactorily.
Each undertaking had to be “ seamster made ” to accommodate the squad available. It was of import that planning of the work force and resources take into consideration handiness of the right chief and support group to be able to pass on and execute work with each squad.
Approximately 1,000,000 hours in the regional offices and 4,000,000 hours in Kuwait were spent for undertaking management/engineering/construction direction during the first two stages of this undertaking. Field labour hours were 50,000,000.
These undertaking man-hours were spent within the undermentioned undertaking agenda mileposts: start of be aftering November 1990 start execution in Kuwait March 199 1 undertaking completion June 1993.
The beginnings of the undertaking forces were assorted. A sum of 16,000 workers from 36 states on five continents were involved in this monolithic attempt. The states that participated in the supply of work force to this Reconstruction included Kuwait, the United States, Great Britain, Canada, France, Australia, Belgium, Holland, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Iran, Lebanon, Bahrain, Yugoslavia, Colombia, Indonesia, Nigeria, Bangladesh, Brazil, Afghanistan, the Philippines, India, Djibouti, Sri Lanka, Somalia, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Pakistan, Trinidad, and Sierra Leone.
Some of the more noteworthy mileposts in the plan were:
The last fire was extinguished and the well was capped on November 6, 199 1, eight months after the reaching of the first Bechtel squad on-site.
The first postwar oil was pumped from two of the original assemblage centres on May 26, 199 1.
By December 1991, more than 400,000 barrels of oil per twenty-four hours were being produced from the rehabilitated installations.
By April 1993, more than 11,000,000 barrels of weather-beaten petroleum had been reclaimed from oil cavities and lakes, and processed through the field intervention centres and the refinery.
By the terminal of June 1993, 18 of the original centres were back in operation, with all the production ends achieved as scheduled.
The work was conducted in 55 locations that included Fieldss in the North of Kuwait on the boundary line with Iraq, West and South of Kuwait on the boundary lines with Saudi Arabia and Iraq, and in the refineries and lading installations along the seashore and offshore.
Five hundred square stat mis of land were swept and cleared of undischarged munition. More than 23,000 pieces of explosive devices were destroyed by explosive munition disposal squads. Although all work countries were swept, the hazard from undetectable munition was of all time present and some human deaths did occur.
More than 26,000 purchase orders and 300 major building contracts and 650 equipment rental understandings were awarded during Phases I and I1 of the undertaking. ( A more normal undertaking performed over the same clip frame may hold 4,000 to 6,000 purchase orders. )
A complete communicating system dedicated to the oil industry was installed that included 23 orbiter telephone systems, 4,500 telephones, and 2,000 portable wirelesss.
A twenty-four-hour wellness attention and safety plan was established that included two chopper medical evacuation squads, a forty-bed infirmary, a dental clinic, and a squad of about 100 professional medical forces on responsibility at seven medical Stationss.
More than 5,800 pieces of field runing equipment runing from the larger bulldozers, Cranes, trucks, front-end stevedores, and heavy industrial equipment to ambulances, pickup trucks, autos, coachs, and other support vehicles were shipped to the occupation sites. These pieces of equipment were purchased from 12 different states.
A sum of 742 aircraft and sea-going vass were deployed to transport more than 520,000 dozenss of equipment and stuff to Kuwait in support of this undertaking.
Six full-service dining halls with providing support staff provided about 3,500,000 repasts for the workers during the fire-fighting run and 10,000,000 repasts during the Reconstruction stage. Menus were established to provide to the different cultural backgrounds.
Commissariats and lodging for 12,000 manual and 2,000 non-manual Bechtel employees were provided. All of the members of project direction and their support squads, over 200 design and technology forces and about 200 procurance, disposal and subcontracts direction squads, were resident in Kuwait.
Construction of a figure of lasting offices, workshops, warehouses, care stores, and lodging composites for KOC was completed at the same clip.
Fire-fighting attempts originally involved the four major international squads of Boots & A ; Coots, Red Adair, Safety Boss, and Wild Well Control. They were subsequently joined by an extra 23 squads from Kuwait, Iran, China, Hungary, Great Britain, France, Canada, Romania, and Russia. Four hundred kilometres of H2O and oil grapevines were installed during fire-fighting attempts. Water lines and pumping Stationss could present 25,000,000 gallons a twenty-four hours to fire sites. Each of 360 lagunas was excavated, lined, and filled with 1,000,000 gallons of H2O for usage in fire-fighting.
Boring tablets and entree roads were constructed for 700 new and work over Wellss.
Three-thousand kilometres of new flow lines were constructed.
One-thousand kilometres of new and refurbished grapevines were installed.
Fifteen petroleum assemblage centres, including a wholly new and modularized early production installation, were assessed, designed, and constructed.
Three gas supporter Stationss were constructed
Restoration and Reconstruction of the Marine burden terminuss, offshore terminuss, and SPM were completed.
Construction of more than 10,000,000 barrels of new rough oil storage tankage was managed.
Restoration of operating expense and belowground electrical power transmittal and distribution system and cathodic protection system within the oil Fieldss was completed.
Construction & A ; fix and operation of H2O systems ( fresh, brackish, and salt H2O ) were completed.
Construction and operation of oil recovery systems and installations that collected and treated more than 25,000,000 barrels of weather-beaten petroleum were completed.