The new discipline of computing and the sciences that depend upon it have led the way in making space for women’s participation on an equal basis. That was in some ways true for Grace Murray Hopper, and it is all the more true for women today because of Hopper’s work. Grace Brewster Murray graduated from Vassar with a B.A. in mathematics in 1928 and worked under algebraist Oystein Ore at Yale for her M.A. (1930) and Ph.D. (1934). She married Vincent Foster Hopper, an educator, in 1930 and began teaching mathematics at Vassar in 1931. She had achieved the rank of associate professor in 1941 when she won a faculty fellowship for study at New York University’s Courant Institute for Mathematics. Hopper had come from a family with military traditions, thus it was not surprising to anyone when she resigned her Vassar post to join the Navy WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service) in December 1943. She was commissioned a lieutenant in July 1944 and reported to the Bureau of Ordnance Computation Project at Harvard University, where she was the third person to join the research team of professor (and Naval Reserve lieutenant) Howard H. Aiken. She recalled that he greeted her with the words, “Where the hell have you been?” and pointed to his electromechanical Mark I computing machine, saying “Here, compute the coefficients of the arc tangent series by next Thursday.” Hopper plunged in and learned to program the machine, putting together a 500-page Manual of Operations for the Automatic Sequence-Controlled Calculator in which she outlined the fundamental operating principles of computing machines. By the end of World War II in 1945, Hopper was working on the Mark II version of the machine. Although her marriage was dissolved at this point, and though she had no children, she did not resume her maiden name. Hopper was appointed to the Harvard faculty as a research fellow, and in 1949 she joined the newly formed Eckert-Mauchly Corporation. Hopper never again held only one job at a time. She remained associated with Eckert-Mauchly and its successors (Remington-Rand, Sperry-Rand, and Univac) until her official “retirement” in 1971. Her work took her back and forth among institutions in the military, private industry, business, and academe. In December 1983 she was promoted to commodore in a ceremony at the White House. When the post of commodore was merged with that of rear admiral, two years later, she became Admiral Hopper. She was one of the first software engineers and, indeed, one of the most incisive strategic “futurists” in the world of computing. Perhaps her best-known contribution to computing was the invention of the compiler, the intermediate program that translates English language instructions into the language of the target computer. She did this, she said, because she was lazy and hoped that “the programmer may return to being a mathematician.” Her work embodied or foreshadowed enormous numbers of developments that are now the bones of digital computing: subroutines, formula translation, relative addressing, the linking loader, code optimization, and even symbolic manipulation of the kind embodied in Mathematica and Maple. Throughout her life, it was her service to her country of which she was most proud. Appropriately, Admiral Hopper was buried with full Naval honors at Arlington National Cemetery on January 7, 1992.Pursuing her belief that computer programs could be written in English, Admiral hopper moved forward with the development for Univac of the B-O compiler, later known as FLOW-MATIC. It was designed to translate a language that could be used for typical business tasks like automatic billing and payroll calculation. Using FLOW-MATIC, Admiral Hopper and her staff were able to make the UNIVAC I and II “understand” twenty statements in English. When she recommended that an entire programming language be developed using English words, however, she “was told very quickly that she couldn’t do this because computers didn’t understand English.” It was three years before her idea was finally accepted; she published her first compiler paper in 1952.Admiral Hopper actively participated in the first meetings to formulate specifications for a common business language. She was one of the two technical advisers to the resulting CODASYL Executive Committee, and several of her staff was membersOrder now
Internet Crimes Essay
Start to design Essay 837 Words | 4 Pages
Having completed my identify and analysis I now need to start to design what the presentation will actually look like. I have decided to do three initial design ideas, all different from each other and then ask the English rep which one he prefers and if there are any other things he would like included. Below are my three initial design ideas: Idea 1 Idea 2 Idea 3 After designing these three initila ideas I e-mialed them to the enhlish rep and asked for his feedback on the designs, and which one he would prefer me to develop. He said:...
The quiet one: Joan Miro Essay 894 Words | 3 Pages
IF THERE is such a thing as a born artist, Joan Miro was one. Almost as soon as he learnt to write, he handed his parents a note which read: "I wish to become a painter." They enlisted the young Joan at art school, but he did not do well there, and in 1910 he was enrolled as a trainee at a Barcelona haberdashers. His career as a clerk was short. Miro took to sketching in the ledgers. He also fell so ill that he was sent to the family's country house to convalesce. The influence of the landscape around Mont-Roig, in southern Catalonia, can be seen...
Creating own signature for use in web Essay 442 Words | 2 Pages
In this tutorial I will show you how to make a custom user bar. I will be making a Photshop CS user bar. 1) Make a new document with sizes widht: 350 height: 19 with a transparent background.2) Make a suitable gradient and apply it.3) Now get a logo, when I usually search for images i use Google Images, find your logo and open it up in Photoshop. 4) Now it's time to remove your logo from the background, get the polygonal lasso tool and carefully cut it out.5) Now go to Edit ; Copy, then open the user bar...
Cyber Criminology: Exploring Internet Crimes and Criminal Behavior by K. Jaishankar 3254 Words | 12 Pages
Almost everyone everywhere in the world has either used or owned a computer. If there was an Internet connection, then they have all been connected together across that medium. But when you are just browsing the Internet or looking at your choice of social media site, did you know that you are getting attacked by some sort of malware or could be verbally assaulted by an individual? In Cyber Criminology: Exploring Internet Crimes and Criminal Behavior by K. Jaishankar, he describes all the ways people across the world are attacked everyday by some sort of malware or by an individual,...
How Many Pages is 6000 Words? 999 Words | 2 Pages
6000 words essay is a time-consuming task and requires a lot of time. However, many students don’t take this assignment seriously, and they try to write it in 24 hours. But, is it possible and how many pages is 6000 words? Well, to answer you, it’s possible, but you need to have a determination and strong will, to finish everything on time and we shouldn’t mention excellent typing skills, because 6000 words demand a lot of speed. It doesn’t matter if you use pages single-spaced, or pages double-spaced, the result is the same, and you still have to meet your...
How Many Pages Is 300 Words? 1040 Words | 3 Pages
It depends on factors such as font size and line spacing. If the lines are single spaced, 300 words will take about 2/3 of a page. If double spaced, they will take close to 1 and 1/3 of a page. This may vary depending on your settings. But your results will very much look like this if your margins are regular, 12 point font and you use Arial or Times New Roman font. But the question does not have a definitive answer, because the number of words needed to fill a page will always vary. That is why papers are...
How Many Pages is 3500 Words? 1031 Words | 3 Pages
The question “how many pages is 3500 words” might sound odd to everyone else. However, to a writer, every word counts. Literally. Depending on the purpose of the write-up, the length of the text, and how many pages it covers, helps one to easily determine how they will articulate the intended purpose. It acts as a guide on how to highlight issues and the level of explanation. A 3500 words essay, for example, cannot be compared to one with less or more words. How do you use words to determine the number of pages? Ideally, there is a basic standard...
How Many Pages is 5000 Words? 931 Words | 2 Pages
As sweet and beautiful as writing can be, it can become less interesting with time, and this is usually the case particularly for newbies who are inexperienced in the field. At such times you begin to ask yourself questions like “how many pages is 5000 words?” and other related questions, at that point you become particular about your word count because you’re getting bored and tired of the work. Having a 5000 word count or better still writing up to 5000 words is not as difficult as many think it to be, but you have to take away your focus...
Nature Vs. Nurture : A Debate Within Psychology 2338 Words | 5 Pages
There 's a debate within psychology about whether certain aspects of behavior are genetic or learned characteristics. Certain physical characteristics are genetic, like color of eyes, hair type, and skin color. Other things like driving, talking, or tying your shoes are learned. People wonder if personality and mental abilities are genetic or learned. There are good arguments for both the nurture, and nature side of these three issues: intelligence, personality, and homosexuality. The process of genetically inheritance is the transmission of traits from parents to offspring. Each cell in the body has 23 pairs of chromosomes and one chromosome from...
How Many Pages is 250 Words? 935 Words | 2 Pages
Introduction In all the daily emails, official letters, proposals, reports and assignments issued, the number of pages used is always a question. For a particular format, 250 words cover half the page, whereas, in another, it takes a full page. It is rather confusing to know exactly how many pages a document of 250 words is. A page double spaced looks different from a page single spaced. To know exactly how many pages is 250 words; consider the following questions: Is it a handwritten or typed document? What it the font used? What is the margin size and font size...
Sorry, but downloading
is forbidden on this website
Make It Original?
How about make it original at only $13.9/page?Let us edit for you at only $13.9 to make it 100% original Proceed