Imperialism from 1871 to 1914 had 3 main characteristics Focused on Africa and Asia because of their materials. The Treaty of Berlin laid out the rules by which European nations expanded in Asia. Other countries started to show up like Japan and the USA. The ‘Scramble for Africa -Causes of the ‘scramble for Africa Strategic factors Britain wanted trade routes to India, and winning over Cape Colony was necessary for that (19th century). The Suez Canal was completed by 1869, but Egypt was too unstable.
Egypt was reluctantly taken over by Britain in 1882, and this began the scramble for Africa. Medical advancements and exploration Africa became known as ‘the white man’s grave’ because of diseases like malaria. Quinine was discovered to help treat malaria. Explorers went to the ‘Dark Continent’ to resources and trading opportunities, and they were financed by the wealthy. Henry Morton Stanley was hired by the Belgium king, King Leopold II to create treaties with chieftains along the Congo River. Weaponry European weapons gave them an advantage.
Political factors By 1871, Europeans settled Africa because the borders of Europe weren’t moving. The abolition of the slave trade Around the 16th century, Europeans would capture slaves by bartering, of kidnapping people. This system was abolished in most countries by 1871 thought. The Industrial Revolution This caused a need for more raw materials, trade routes, and population centres. Iron-hulled steamships made going across rivers like the Congo, Zambezi, and Niger easier. A sense of duty Europeans thought that it was their duty to provide Christianity the lives of the pagan Africans.
Missionary Livingstone said that they have to introduce the 3 C’s Commerce, Christianity, and civilisation. Lord Curzon ended up using this reason in his speech to justify British expansion in 1907. This was not the case, the drive mainly came from self interest. Lord Lugard openly stated that this was false, and in reality, Britain was doing this for their own personal gain, however he didn’t see anything wrong with this. He believed the needs of the natives were outweighed by the needs of the English.
The rush for African territor Britain Originally, Britain just wanted to keep its trading routes. Afterward, they found valuable gems and metals, so they tried to get as much land as possible before anyone else could get any part of the land. Imperialist adventurers like Cecil Rhodes helped britain take control of Egypt, Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, Somaliland, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Bechuanaland, Orange Free State, the Transvaal, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Ghana, and Malawi in 20 years.
This is 30% of the country; he also wanted to build a telegraph line from Cairo to the Cape to help commercial gains. France Because of the slave trade, France took control of Senegal and Algeria. They started to move inward and get resources like wood and palm oil because politicians thought that it would increase the country’s wealth, power, and influence. Belgium Belgium got independence from the Netherlands in the 1830s. King Leopold II wanted to increase the influence of his country, so he claimed the Congo basin. He put a lot of money into this expecting to make Belgium’s colony larger than itself. Portugal Because portugal didn’t want to be left behind, they re-established their claims to Angola and Mozambique.
Germany Germany joined late in 1881, so most of the good lands were taken; the countries ended up costing more that they were worth. They got Kamerun, Namibia, Togo, and Ghana. -The Treaty of Berlin 188 Getting parts of Africa turned into a mad rush to get as much African land a possible. To prevent war, representatives from 13 European countries met at the Berlin Conference (1884-1885). This stated that each country had the right to get ownership of land without interference. Designed to regulate European colonization in Africa.
There were set rules The government claiming the land would have to tell the other governments immediately, and the area has to be effectively occupied. All ships can pass through the Niger and Congo rivers. Slavery should end throughout the entire country. This partially made countries more frantic to gain control of Africa though. There was one occurence where France, led by Marchand, met Britain, led by Lord Kitchener, in Sudan. It looked like they would go to war, but France acknowledged that Britain will own Sudan and Egypt, and Britain acknowledged that France will own Morocco.