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    Important Artists Renaissance, Mannerism, Baroque

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    Cimabue Madonna Enthroned
    Cimabue Madonna Enthroned
    Gothic Art, from Italy. This was placed on the altar in the Florence Cathedral, but it is in a museum now. Made in tempera paint. Cimabue was the painter, and he trained Giotto. Revival in large-scale imagery. Different styles of depicting Mary are combined. She wears blue and sits on a throne, but she doesn’t have a crown. It is a still image with expressionless faces and has gold in it, which is more Byzantine. This was called the “Greek-manner” at the time.
    Trained Giotto (di Bondone).
    Giotto (di Bondone)
    Giotto (di Bondone)
    Pictured “Madonna Enthroned” tempra, (1266-1337)Early Ren. (modled from softer, more rounded, byzantine style)
    Sometimes called Father of Renaissance painting; he used perspective first; facial expressions reflect humanity and emotion.

    First to experiment with Chiaroscuro (the study of light/dark) ;

    frescos “The Ascension,” and “The funeral of St. Francis” were possibly his most famous. Trained under Cimabue in Byzantine style.

    Early and High Renaissance (1400-1550)

    Characteristics: Rebirth of classical culture
    Top 4 Breakthroughs, Oil on Streached Canvas; Perspective; Chiaroscuro (the use of light and shadow); Pyramid Configuration

    Main Works/Artists: Ghiberti’s Doors, Brunelleschi, Donatello, Botticelli, Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael

    Important Historical Events/Influences:
    Gutenberg invents movable type (1447); Turks conquer Constantinople (1453); Columbus lands in New World (1492); Martin Luther starts Reformation (1517)

    Trinity, 1401 – 1428;
    Renaissance Called “father of modern painting” Florentine painter; effectively use chiaroscure technique for greater sense of perspective; gave mathematical precision to the use of perspective; influential to other It. Ren. artists; painted the fresco of The Holy Trinity.
    Architecture in the Renaissance
    (the four ‘R’s of Renaissance Architecture)

    -Rome- they had a passion for classics, and systematically measured Roman ruins to copy the style and proportion. They revived elements like Rounded Arch, Concrete Construction, Domed Rotunda, Portico, barrel Vault, and columns

    -Rules- Architects considered themselves scholars rather than simply builders; they based work on theories, as expressed in various treatises. Alberti formulated rules that were widely followed.

    -Reason- Theories emphasized architecture’s rational basis, grounded in science, math, and engineering. Cool reason replaced the mystical approach of the middle ages.

    -‘Rithmetic- Architects depended on arithmetic to produce beauty and harmony. A system of ideal proportions related parts of a building to each other in numerica ratios. Such as 2:1 ratio of a nave= twice as high as the width of a church. Layouts relied on geometric shapes, particularly the circle & square.

    Famous Architects of Renaissance were Alberti, Brunelleschi Bramante and Palladio.

    wrote first systematic guide to perspective and provided sculptures with rules for ideal human proportion. Wrote treatises on painting, sculpture, and architecture.
    Tempietto 1502 (Means: “little temple”) 1444-1514
    Built in Rome on the site where St. Peter was crucified. Tiny, but the perfect prototype of the domed central plan church. Expressed Renaissance ideals of order, simplicity, and harmonious proportions.
    The Cathedral of Florence Dome, (1440-61)
    An architect who boldly combined roman classical and Gothic architecture. It illustrates the revival of Roman forms and Renaissance emphasis on symmetry and regularity.

    Known as “father of modern engineering”
    He used geometry as the basis for his designs, focusing on spheres and planes. He built the dome on the cathedral in Florence, starting in 1420. He also is given credit for being the first to understand and use perspective, although it was immediately used more clearly in sculpture and painting.

    East Doors of the Florence Baptistry, (1378 – 1455)
    A Italian Renaissance sculptor and metal worker.
    Florentine sculptor and goldsmith who taught both Donatello and Filippo Brunelleschi. He is best known for two pairs of bronze doors on the Florence Baptistery (associated with the Duomo, or Florentine Cathedral). He produced a single, low-relief panel to win a 1401 competition (defeating Brunelleschi) for the commission to design the 28 panels for the north doors. After that, he was given another commission to design ten panels for the east doors. This latter work, by far his most famous, was dubbed the “Gates of Paradise” by Michelangelo.
    Italian architect who developed a style based on the classicism of ancient Rome, breaking with the ornate conventions of the Italian Renaissance. His works include the Villa Rotonda and the Palazzo Chiericati in Venice.
    Wrote “Four Books on Architecture”
    St. Peter's Basilica
    St. Peter’s Basilica
    St. Peter’s Basilica, – Vatican City
    – architect – Michelangelo (built dome/decorations)
    – on St. Peter’s tomb (buried in 67 CE) as a chapel
    – ordered rebuilt by Constantine in 324CE
    – restored by Pope John Paul II
    – 1506CE – 1626CE
    – Largest interior space of any Christian church (pope’s main church
    -tallest dome in the world
    -Corinthian columns
    Jan van Eyck
    Double Portrait of Giovanni and his Wife, first great Flemish Renaissance painter; used recently developed oil-based paints to develop techniques that painters still use today; perfected the technique of oil painting; his paintings display unusually realistic details and reveal the personality of their subjects, and his work influenced later artists in Northern Europe; most famous work was the the Ghent altarpiece (1432), a polyptych consisting of twenty panels in the Church of St. Bavo, Ghent
    Donatello/ Michelangelo
    Donatello/ Michelangelo
    Donatello’s David (in bronze; plaster copy shown), Michelangelo’s David (more famous marble statue, not shown).
    Donatello’s David (after the fight) c. 1425-1430, Early Renaissance (Goliath represents Milan)
    Michelangelo’s David (before the fight) c.1501-1504, High Renaissance, (Goliath represents Rome/Medici power)
    Hugo van der Goes
    Hugo van der Goes
    Portinari Altarpiece,(Shown Center panel of Altarpiece, “Adoration of the Shepherds”) EARLY RENAISSANCE 1475
    Flemish painter; along with Jan van Eyck, and Rogier van der Weyden, was one of the most important of the Early Netherlandish painters. Flanders -combines van Eyck’s naturalistic feel with van der Weyden’s use of dramatic emotion Portinari Altarpiece
    Born at Ghent, he became a member of the painters’ guild of Ghent as a master in 1467.
    The Garden of Earthly Delights, (1450-1516)
    A surrealist painter of the Netherlands who focused his works on symbolism, fantasy, confusion, death and the torments of Hell. Most famous work = “Death and the Miser” (1490)
    Birth of Venus, One of the leading painters of the Florentine Renaissance, developed a highly personal style. He was one of the many artists sponspored by the Medici family. His most famous work was The Birth of Venus (1482).
    Albrect Durer
    Albrect Durer
    The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, carried Renaissance ideas back to homeland (Germany). produced woodcuts and engravings. influenced Hans Holbein the Younger. Learned the italian sense of achieving accurate proportions of the human form.
    Da Vinci /Tintoretto
    Da Vinci /Tintoretto
    The Last Supper (shown tintoretto, DaVinci’s is more well known) the two artists that painted The Last Supper
    Michelangelo Pieta
    Michelangelo Pieta
    Pieta, Period: Italian Renaissance
    Born 1475 and died 1564
    Architect, poet, and painter
    used a lot of religious iconography
    Work of Art
    – took him two years to make it
    -subtle but sturdy triangles and arches
    – pain in mary’s face b/c her son is dead
    – very detailed
    – christ dead on his mothers lap
    – carved in Carrara marble
    – 1497-1499
    – only work he ever signed
    Da Vinci
    Da Vinci
    Mona Lisa, He was a true Renaissance man, who was gifted in math, painting, drawing, philosophy, physics and inventing, and had a had a great impact both in his lifetime and posthumously. He also studied botany, astrology, and human anatomy, among other subjects. He also painted the best-known picture in the Western world, the Mona Lisa/ La Gioconda. “The Last Supper”(classical), “Vitruvian Man”(anatomy)
    Sistine Chapel Ceiling,
    An Italian painter, sculptor, and architect of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Among many achievements in a life of nearly ninety years, Michelangelo sculpted the David and several versions of the Pietà, painted the ceiling and rear wall of the Sistine Chapel, and served as one of the architects of Saint Peter’s Basilica, designing its famous dome. He is considered one of the greatest artists of all time.
    Michelangelo last judgement
    Last Judgement, An Italian painter, sculptor, and architect of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Among many achievements in a life of nearly ninety years, Michelangelo sculpted the David and several versions of the Pietà, painted the ceiling and rear wall of the Sistine Chapel, The Ceiling depicts the ancestors of Christ awaiting the Redeemer, has many biblical scenes. Has trompe l’oeil architectural elements. looks 3-dimensional. 1508-1512.

    The Last Judgement, 1534-1541, is painted on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel. It depicts the second coming of Christ and shows souls of humans rising and descending to their fates. Vatican, Rome.

    School of Athens, 1483-1520 Short but productive life. Worked in Florence and Rome. Well-known for Madonnas, humanized portrayals of the Virgin Mary with the baby Jesus. Painted frescoes in Vatican Palace – espec. The School of Athens & The Triumph of Religion – reflect artist’s strong interest in classical antiquity and Christian religion.
    Venetian and Northern Renaissance

    Characteristics: The Renaissance spreads north- ward to France, the Low Countries, Poland, Germany, and England

    Main Works/Artists: Bellini, Giorgione, Titian, Dürer, Bruegel, Bosch, Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden

    Council of Trent and Counter-Reformation (1545-1563); Copernicus proves the Earth revolves around the Sun (1543

    Venus of Urbino, Most famous of Venetian painters of Renaissance. – prolific. Richness of colors- especially. red. Many religious paintings ex. The Assumption of the Virgin and many portraits, kings and popes etc. Paintings had freshness, warmth, and vitality that was missing in the serene Renaissance portraits of southern Italy
    Matthias Grunewald
    Matthias Grunewald
    Isenheim Altarpiece,
    A German Renaissance painter of religious works, ignored Renaissance classicism, continued the expressive and intense style of late medieval Central European art into the 16th century, Isenheim Altarpiece
    Pieter Brueghel
    Pieter Brueghel
    Return of the Hunters
    The Hunters in the Snow — also known as The Return of the Hunters — is a celebrated oil on wood painting by Pieter Bruegel. The work is one in a series of six works, five of which still survive, that depict different times of the year. , one of the most famous flemish artists, painted in the mid-1500s, loved the countryside/peasants and painted scenes with them; also used paintings as a means to criticize intolerance and cruelty
    Pieter Brueghel
    Pieter Brueghel
    The Peasant Wedding,
    -Flemish (dutch) Renaissance painter
    -the peasant painter, not b/c he was a peasant but because he found the carefree attitude of the Peasants to be refreshing next to the stifled “posing” of the upper classes.
    -children’s games
    -ou can always tell his work because it’s almost always busy with these detailed little people, rather than close-ups.
    Feast in the House of Levi, great Venetian artist who used great colr and classical architecture in his paintings. Made the Christ in the House of Levi and Triumph of Venice
    Holbein (the younger)
    Holbein (the younger)
    Portrait of Henry VIII, Renaissance Painter
    (Holbein was from Germany, and was a portraitist. He linked German and Italian painting styles. His most famous piece is The Ambassadors, a painting of two men with many gadgets, and a strange skull at the bottom.) He was commissioned by Henry VIII to provide portraits of the English king’s prospective brides (1497-1543)

    Characteristics: Art that breaks the rules; artifice over nature. Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, highly stylized poses, and lack of clear perspective.

    Main Works/Artists: Tintoretto, El Greco, Pontormo, Bronzino, Cellini

    Magellan circumnavigates the globe (1520-1522)

    Mannerist, Perspective lines converge on darkness. Conflation of time periods in clothing. Christ difficult to locate in scene. Uses classical techniques for non-classical ends. Tried to unite the style of Michelangelo with the colors of Titian. Tintoretto, real name Jacopo Comin, was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Renaissance school. For his phenomenal energy in painting he was termed Il Furioso
    El Greco
    El Greco
    his work expressed mannerism. was from the island of Crete. after studying in Venice and Rome then moved to Spain. painted elongated and contorted figures. the mood depicts religous upheavals. (the one in class same concept as last judgement)
    Mannerist. Upturned pyramid shape. Ambiguous. Shocking colors. Void in the middle of the painting. Mannerism, distorts perspective on purpose, elegant and beautiful poses, not logical not proportional. put himself in all faces, very strange.
    Date: (1503-1573)
    Place of Origin: Florence
    Place of Art: Florence
    Style Characteristics: Long necks, sloping shoulders
    Major Works: Portrait of a Young Man, Eleanor of Toledo and Her Son Giovanni de Medici (shown)
    • 1500 – 1571
    • Florence, Italy (he moved around a lot)
    • The Cellini Salt Cellar, The Nymph of Fontainebleau, sculpture – Perseus with the head of Medusa (shown)
    • Autobiography
    • Gold Smith and sculptor who was certain of his own personal genius that he wrote about in his autobiography so that the whole world might appreciate it. Killed a man who criticized him (critic?) and got away with it
    Bernini’s Ecstasy of St. Theresa

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