Development of Philippine Literature According to Athenian, Ramose, Salary and Nasal in their book Painting Filipino, “true literature is a piece of written work which is undying. It expresses the feelings and emotions of people in response to his everyday efforts to live, to be happy in his environment and, after struggles, to reach his Creator. It is important to study Philippine Literature as enumerated: To better appreciate our literary heritage: trace ideas passed down through generation from our ancestors and better understand ourselves and take pride in being a Filipino To understand hat we have a great and noble tradition as means to assimilate culture To overcome limitations conditioned by certain historical factors Time Frames of Philippine Literature in English: Pre-Spanish Period Our ancient literature truly reflects our early customs & traditions as traced in folk stories, old plays and short stories.
Back then, the alphabet used was different and were similar to the Malay-Polynesian alphabet which we called Alabama. Written works however did not last long because the Spanish Friars burned them believing that they were works of the devil or that were destroyed because they were written in erasable materials like the barks of trees, dried leaves and bamboo cylinders. Those that survived are in oral form such as our folk songs. The Spaniards tried to prove that our ancestors were really fond of poetry, songs, stories, riddles and proverbs which we still enjoy until today and which serve to show descendants the true Filipino culture.
Pre-Spanish literature is characterized by Legends, Folk tales, Epics, Folk Songs, and Epigrams/Riddles/Chants/Proverbs & Sayings. Spanish pennon (1565-1872) At this regime, Philippine literature started to thrived at Governor-General Miguel Lopez De Legalizes reign. Due to three centuries of colonization, several changes were influenced by the Spaniards: 1. Alabama, the 1st Filipino alphabet, was changed to Roman alphabet 2. Basis of religious practices was the teaching of Christian Doctrine 3. Spanish language was infused with Filipino language 4.
Assimilation of European legends & traditions to our own 5. Translation of ancient literature to our dialects 6. Printing of Filipino grammar books 7. Periodicals gained a religious tone. The first books published were Nag Doctrine Christiana, Muenster Senora del Rosaries, Libra De Los Actuator Postmasters De Hombre, Nag Barilla at Josephus, The Passion, Development of Dance and Music in the Philippines By Sierra-Vivaldi period were Art y Reggae De la Language Toga by FRR. Balance De San Jose, Compendia De la Language Toga by FRR.
Gasper De San Augustan and Vocabulary De la Language Toga by FRR. Pedro De San Buenaventura. Period of Enlightenment (1872-1898) After being passive under Spanish rule for 3 centuries, the Filipino spirit awakened when the 3 well known priests – Gomez, Burros, Somoza – were guillotined without enough evidence and the Spaniards weren’t able to restrain the rebellion. The rebellion was divided in 2 efforts: The Propaganda Movement (1872-1896) and Period of Active Revolution (1896-1898). The Propaganda Movement were leaded by intellectual middle-class people like our “National Hero” Dry.
Jose Racial, Marcelo del Pillar, and Grecian Lopez Jean, and its members were Antonio Ulna, Marino Pence, Jose Ma. Panamanian, Pedro Pattern etc. The objectives of this movement were to seek reforms and changes for the liberation and equity of Filipinos through their literary works. The most famous works of these people that stirred the Filipinos were Noel Me Tanager, El Filibusterer’s, Mi Ultimo Adios, A La Juvenile Filipino, Paging As Attenuating Lap, La Siberian En Philippians, Nag Fray Bottom, Enoch Buena, Sober Filipinos, A Mi Madder, and Nag Lubing Tinnitus.
However, the petitions made by the propaganda movement were ignored and fell on deaf ears that this action led to the revolution leaded by Andrea Boniface, Emilio Action, and Application Mamboing, whose members were Jose Palm, Poi Valuable, etc. Though it’s true that the group used weapons against the colonizers, they also contributed several literary works such as Page-lbs. as Attenuating Lap, Sartorially Eng Justinian, and As Banyan Filipino. American Regime (1898-1941) After the Spaniards were defeated, peace movements started as early as 1900. Filipinos started writing again and nationalism remains undisturbed.
During this period, writers went into all forms of literature like news reporting, poetry, stories, plays, essays, novels, etc. Their writing clearly depicted patriotism and longing for independence. In addition, 3 group of writers were formed – Spanish, Toga, and English. Though they differ in methods of reporting, they share the same ideas and spirit. The Spanish writers wrote on nationalism like in honoring Filipino heroes. Toga writers went on and on in their lamentations on the conditions of the country and their attempts to arouse love for one’s native tongue.
English writers Just imitated the themes and methods of the Americans. Also, this regime was divided into three periods. The First Period was of Re-orientation (1898-1910). Not much was produced during this period and was not much of literary worth. Writers were still adjusting from the idea of democracy – freedom of ideas and speech, the new phraseology of English language and standards of English literary style. They had to learn direct expression conditioned by direct thinking, sentence constructions, sounds & speech in English. They had to abandon sentimentality and floridly of language for the more direct and precise English language.
Also, English becomes the official medium of instruction for all public schools. The Philippine Free Press was founded in 1905 and College Folio begun its publication. The Second Period was of and poetry writing. They were more into imitating American and British models which resulted in a stiff, synthetic and unnatural style, lacking vigor and naturalness. Writers of this folio included Fernando Miramar, Juan F. Salary, Jose M. Hernandez, Vaccine del Iffier, Francisco Tantamount, Maxima Koala, Vidal A. Tan, Francisco M. Africa, and Victorian Yeoman. In addition, the Philippine Herald began its publication in 1920.
The Third Period was of Self-Discovery and Growth (1925-1941). By this time, Filipino writers had acquired the mastery of English writing. They now confidently and completely wrote on a lot of subjects although the old-time favorites of love and youth persisted. They also went into all forms of writing like the novel and drama. Furthermore, Philippine Book Guild and Philippine Writers League was organized and the 1st Commonwealth Literary awards were given. Japanese Period (1941-1945) The progression of Philippine literature halted during the Japanese invasion.
All newspapers except for Tribune and the Philippine Review were stopped. Because of the strict prohibitions in English writing by the invaders, Toga literature experienced renewed attention. Even the weekly Alleyway was placed under strict supervision until it was managed by Japanese man named Ashier. In other words, Toga literature was given a break during this period. Many wrote plays (but dramas became lull and were simply translated versions of English plays), poems (3 types arise: Haiku, Tanana, and Garaging Any), short stories (its field expanded), etc. Topics and themes were often about life in the provinces.
Philippine Literature in English experienced a dark period and those who dared to write did for propaganda. Writings that came out during this period were Journalistic in nature and what literary output there was hardly negligible. Writers felt chained but slowly the spirit of nationalism returned. While some continued to write, others waited for a better mime to publish their works. Rebirth of Freedom (1946-1970) Writers had learned to express themselves more confidently but post-war problems beyond language and print-like economic stability, the threat of new ideas, and mortality had to be handled well & together.
There was proliferation of newspapers and it proved that there were more readers in English than vernaculars. Journalist became more radical. And as normality was restored, the tones and themes of writings turned to the less pressing problems of economic survival. Those who went abroad came back to publish their written works. It was noted that not all published kooks focused on war years but were simply compilations and second editions of what had been written before.
Here are some works of this period: The Voice of the Veteran Twilight in Tokyo Passion Death of the SAFE For Freedom and Democracy Betrayal in the Philippines Most poems dealt with the usual love of nature and social & political problems. Novel & Short Stories became longer. Toga Literature was resurrected and mostly focused during the occupation of Japanese – brutality, poverty, exploits, etc. Several literary-related organizations were formed and literary awards were launched I. E. The Planck Awards pennon of Activists (1970-1972) The patriotic youths became active and ask for changes in the government.
They believe that the system is okay but the stationed people are not. But because of this, several of them were imprisoned along with other rebel writers. They truly were heroes. Many books aptly record and embody these times but many of these are not known to many and many of these writers still have to be interviewed. These led to the declaration of Martial Law in 1972. Campus newspapers were malodorous of rebellious emotions. They attacked the ills of society and politics. Any establishment became the symbol of the ills that had to be changed. Frustrations of youths were felt in churches and schools.
Even those with authority who should be respected were thought to be hindrances to the changes sought by youths hence, they were targeted. The literature of the activist reached a point where they stated boldly what should be done to effect these changes. Some of theses who rallied to this revolutionary form of literature were Rolando Toni, Region Manages, Free Abuse, ROI Alma, and Clement Battista. The forms of literature that led during this period were the says, debates and poetry. The short stories, novels and plays were no different in style from those written before the onset of activism.
Some of these were I Married a Newspaperman by Maria Ulna Lopez, The Modern Filipino Short Story by Patricia Enameled Cruz, Cross Currents in Afro-Asian Literature by Rustics D. Carpi, Brief Time to Love by Offline F. Almanac, and Medium Rare and Tell the People by Julie Yap Daze pennon of New society (1972-1981) Bilingual education which was initiated by the Board of National Education as early as 1958 and continued up to the period of Martial Rule in September 1972, resulted n the deterioration of English in the different levels of education.
The focus of education and culture were on problems of national identity, on re-orientation, renewed vigor and a firm resolve to carve to carry out plans and programs. The forms of literature that led during this period were the essays, debates and poetry. The short stories, like the novels and plays were no different in style from those written before the onset of activism. Books entitled The Modern Filipino Short Story(Patricia Enameled Cruz) and Brief Time to Love (Offline Limbic) came out during this epoch. End of The Third Republic (1981-1985) After the Martial Rule was lifted, people still seethed with rebellion and protest from the previous oppression and suppression. Just because the rule was lifted, it doesn’t mean people will be peaceful. The anger and hatred felt didn’t dissipate assassinated. The people’s idol and hope brutally murdered, who wouldn’t feel mad? The aftermath was chaotic yet ironically, the people united and somehow brought change to our country. Such event was considered one of the major turning points in History.
It should be noted that Philippine Literature retained its luster inspire of the numerous limitations. Also, the Planck Awards continued whether on time or delayed. Contemporary Period (1986) Finally, freedom became a reality – won through peaceful, bloodless and God-blessed revolution. Through everyone’s effort, independence was blessed to them, true Republic of the Philippines. Several changes in literature during this period was evident: On Newspapers: buddy newspaper became opposition papers overnight (I. E. Bulletin Today & The Inquirer) and enjoyed an overnight increase in circulation.
Being free of restrictions, columnists became vocal and a bumper crop of young Journalist emerged. The old stalwarts of the former dispensation came back with retaliation. Excluding tabloids, 19 local dailies, both English & Toga, were in circulation by June 1986. On Books: Experiences during the Martial Law was documented and Philippine Literature is still progressing. Books that carry print and visual events of what occurred during the February Revolution were People Power (by Ammonia M. A. Mercado & J. B. Reuters) and Banyan OK (Verities Publication & Communications Foundation).
Literary awards were continuously given like the National Book Awards in which in that period, Marjorie Persia (Daydreamers Selected Poems) and Dianna L. Eugenia (Await as Corridor: Philippine Metrical Romances) were awarded according to the choices made by the Manila Critics Circle. Also, Bookmark Manila ’88 by Philippine Exhibit Company was held with the belief that “requisition of knowledge not only enhances individual skills & capabilities but more importantly, makes positive contributions to the nations development program”.
The flowering of Philippine literature in the various language continues as Filipino writers continue to write whether these are socially committed, gender/ethnic related or in personal intention. They became more conscious of their art with the proliferation of writers workshops here and abroad and the bulk of literature available to him via mass media including internet. With various literary awards, writers were encouraged to compete with peers and hope that their creative efforts will bore them rewards.
With the new requirement by the SHED of teaching of Philippine Literature in all tertiary schools in the country emphasizing the teaching of vernacular literature or literatures of the regions, the audience for Filipino writers is virtually assured. And, perhaps, a national iterate finding its niche among the literatures of the world will not be far behind. The Filipinos are a musical nation is a fact. Their beautiful sentimental music is the result of their reaction to their physical and emotional environment.
However, the Filipinos do not have sufficient authentic records of their forefathers’ invaluable writings because these were destroyed by conquerors or accidentally lost through carelessness or ignorance. Also, one cannot tell exactly the characteristics of certain epochs of Philippine music because music may develop continuously over different eroded of history regardless of historic circumstances. As musical people, Filipinos have a particular brand of music for every occasion. Our ascendants had their own collection of songs, dances, and instruments which exemplified their religious and social life.
Songs of our ancestors were more of recitative but the melody exudes customs, traditions, and aspirations of the people. Many of these songs were sung by non-Christian tribes. Early Filipinos had songs for the various activities. According to Canonical and Aside, early Filipinos had: 1 . Ordinary songs (Dianna, tailwind) 2. Street songs (undulating, slanting) . Sorrow (dalai, umbra) 4. Wedding (Inman) 5. Rowing (teasing, clausal) 6. Lullaby (heel, hill, away, away) 7. Success (baling-skunking, deadpanning, Hillman, combinations, datagram) 8. House (tinged) 9. General merrymaking (kali) 10.
Counting (Uruguay) Several Instruments: 1) String a) Bucket/kittening/bigwigs – Visalia guitar made from coconut shell b) Butting/ auguring – bamboo ties with hemps or banana fibers c) Kidnap/getaway/haggling – two-stringed elongated lute d) Lit – bamboo violin e) Pas-inning/gulling/panting – bamboo guitar f) Kara – guitar used by Kara people in east coast of Mindanao g) Auguring – mambo bow h) Boonton violin/hogging/skin/sawdust/Armstrong I) Negotiator violin 2) Wind a) Banana/Galilean/Palate – four-hole made of mountain cane b) Tulsa/total – flute with one hole for mouth and six holes for fingers c) Eyeballing/baling/kipping – nose flute d) Natty/subbing – clarinet Papayas – water whistle g) Pastor – toy instrument made of leaf of the coconut or nip for small horn(turbot) h) Did-ideas – pipe instrument I) Tambala – trumpet made from horn 3) Percussion a) Saluting – most primitive percussion instrument still used b) Bank/bill – bamboo musical instrument ) Sullies – hollow wooden drum; rhythm instrument to mark the times of the dance d) Togo – drum e) Luda – drum f) Unguent – drum g) Gangs – kind of bronze goon h) Agglutinating – set of graduated melody gongs extensively used I) Sanding – 4 big narrow-lidded gongs j) Bandier – single bronze gong k) Gabbing – native xylophone used in Sulk l) Subbing -JeWs harp Spanish pennon (1521-1898) Spaniards not only brought their own culture but also European influence which marked the beginning of the cultivation of music as a fine art in the Philippines. The Educational Decree of 1863 was implemented and it provided for formal education or teachers where vocal music was one of the subjects to be taught.
Because of this, Sacred Music was given importance because Christianity was the main goal of Spanish Colonization. Songs: a. Tactually is a melody depicting grief. It is best adapted to the reading/singing of the Passion of our Lord during the Holy Week. It is also sung in monotone. B. Palominos is a song of the blind asking for alms c. Augmenting is the oldest and most popular song among Christian Filipinos. It is a nocturnal song sung to the accompaniment of the violin/guitar. It expresses the history, character and tradition of the people. D. Await is a recitative written in % time and in minor key. It is set freely to verses about Philippine legendary hero. E.
Ballista is a Visalia folksong with is a dance and song – though mostly sung. It is dived into 2 classes: Baling Mayor (derived from the graceful French slow waltz) and Ballista Minor (characteristically a Visalia love song). F. Kinsman comes from the words “Gung hind’ man”. It is a Toga love song whose rhythmic fugue is derived from the lively Spanish bolero a typical % waltz. Also, it is the favorite of serenades. Games: Duple is an impromptu competition in which the loser recites a poem, a sort of entertainment to console the relatives of the deceased. There are more than 175 folk dances in the Philippine which have remained unchanged through the years.
Because Filipinos enjoyed European dances particularly fandango, curaçao, tango, separated and the stately rigatoni, some of these folk dances were modified to meet the need for change as modernization demands. These dances reflect almost all aspects of the people’s lives: religious, occupational, entertainment, recreational, courtship, marriage, baptism and even war. According to Mrs.. Lucre Artful, Philippine indigenous music can be divided not three distinct groups: The Randall The instruments of Muslim Filipinos (assortment of brass instruments) The instruments of the mountain region tribes (I. E. Gong, flute, drums) Early Philippine Theatre: There were various native stage presentations Filipinos enjoyed during the Spanish period. The most popular vernacular presentations were the moor-moor, carillon and Azure.
During occasions of town fiestas, performers used provisional stage of nip and bamboo. Later, huge “theatre bodegas” with pyramidal roofs such as those seen over cockpits appeared. The Moor-moor depicts the battle between Christians & Muslims, the adaptations of legends about knight-errant’s & princesses, the triumphant entry/exit of the conqueror and the downfall of the vanquished accompanied by Spanish music. The Carillon is a shadow play using puppets made from cardboard skillfully manipulated by a narrator behind the screen. The themes are usually derived from the libretto from “Don Quixote”, “Bubby Eng Mall an Pinioning Histories” and “Don Juan Tenor”.
The Azure are improvised plots by comedians using comic, tragic, fantastic, melodramatic, or a combination of all. It does not have a definite form. Singing was free and imaginative. Performers make extemporaneous comments. At times, the audience swapped comments with the artists. It is said that Azure originated from Pangaea hence, they are the best. Before the birth of talkies and television, careless used to be the most popular form of entertainment especially during the barrio fiesta. The Bamboo Organ of Lass Pitas: The man who conceived the idea of building the bamboo organ was a young Spanish priest of the Augustine Recollect order, FRR.
Diego’ Cert. deal Virgin del Carmen. Due to low funds, he along with the village craftsmen created the Bamboo Organ and was credited for it. The organ has undergone repairs in several years. It is the oldest and most unique musical instrument for its durability is unsurpassed for having lasted more than 160 years compared to most organs of only 15 years. American Period (1898-1941) The first known law affecting the Philippine Public School System was Article 74 of the Philippine commission which provided formal training for teachers. The American Educational systems have greatly influenced the Philippine system of education. American textbooks and song books were used.
The radio, phonograph, and movies helped disseminate world culture. American inning through Jazz invaded the country. Nevertheless, the spirit of nationalism triggered by the Spanish revolution, pushed Filipino composers to use the native folk songs for their thematic materials. With the establishment of conservatories (school for special instruction in music), formal education in music started. Under a program of specialization was the training program for professionals which produced music specialist such as performer, composer, transcriber, conductor, researcher, musicologist, arranger, theorist, essayist, and critic. Philippine Opera: It was believed that Philippine Opera evolved from the Azure.
And because of he various opera companies engaged in the production of Azure, Manila was dubbed “Italy of the Orient” Japanese Occupation Period (1942-1945) This was the darkest epoch in the history of the Philippines. The Japanese wanted only Oriental ways for the people. This gave the Filipinos no other choice but to revert to their traditional ways of entertainment – opera, musical plays and drama although a few appreciated Japanese music. Post Liberation Period (1945-1946) The Filipino is a lover of music. Music is as important as the air he breaths. He finds adequate expression of his feelings through singing, moving, creating, playing n instrument, and Just listening.
The reawakening of interest in diversified forms of culture is manifested in the proliferation of ensembles, vocal and instrumental not only in schools but also in churches, government and private offices, communities and within the family. Not only the gifted in institutions get involved but even the out of school youth has his share of participation. The people’s patrimony of the country caused the use of native instruments through Randall, a favorite performing string ensemble in all public schools, private institutions, government offices, and other musically interested groups. Need for professional growth is evident in the holding of in-service-training programs, seminars, workshops, and conferences sponsored by schools, government agencies, and musical organizations.
Teaching competency in music is assured with the appointment of Bachelor of Music graduates in Applied Music and Music Education as teachers. School songs, choral and instrumental arrangements are available in the market. Forms/Compositions Philippine Music comes in a variety of forms, covering a wide spectrum of sources, geographically and historically; representing more than 100 Ethan-linguistic groups s well as different social and cultural environments in the Philippines. The totality of these forms may be categorized into three distinct repertoires: 1) Asiatic oral music, and semi classical music. The first category covers forms that are closely related to the cultural traditions of Southeast Asia.
In the Philippines, such traditions are practiced among the villages in the Cordillera Administrative Region, in the upland areas of Palatal, Indoor and eastern Mindanao, the predominantly Muslim communities in western Mindanao and Sulk, as well as the different Negotiator communities across the archipelago, e. G. Northern Luzon, Bucolic and parts of Panama and Mindanao. Most of the musical forms are performed in connection with rites of passage and life cycle events as well as occupational activities. These occasions consist of birth, initiation and graduation ceremonies; courtship and marriage; death and funeral rites; hunting, fishing, planting and harvest; healing and various forms of armed conflicts. The second category of musical forms consists of orally transmitted genres and compositions that are performed in rural Christian communities in Luzon, Visas and parts of lowland Mindanao, and are generally referred to as Philippine “folk music”.
Their origins may be traced through four evolutionary processes: 1) forms that have been introduced by the Spanish colonial power and later adopted and modified by local artists and performers (metrical romances); 2) synthetic and hybrid forms that have been locally assimilated elements from Western religious traditions (subsoil, shanghaiing); and 4) locally processed songs based on older pre-colonial tunes (planting songs, children’ s play songs, lullabies, love songs and serenades). Much of Philippine folk music are found in the religious and parasitological repertoires of countryside Christian communities, as well as in arioso forms of entertainment and rites of passage such as marriage and funeral ceremonies. The third category of Philippine musical forms are found in urban communities and centers of population. In the last 100 years, Filipino composers have written works in the standard Western art music forms (chamber music, symphonic music, opera, serial, etc. And contemporary music styles, as well as the latest popular music industry- Latin American, Jazz, country, rock, folk, rap, etc. In addition, modern compositions have also been written for such theatrical forms as dance and/or ballet, drama, musicales, and cinema. Outside the symphony orchestra tradition and the Filipino theater, the Filipinos have also developed a repertoire for three distinct musical ensembles: the band (brass and bamboo), the Randall and the chorus. The Philippine band repertoire consists of marches, overtures, symphonic poems, concentrate pieces, and medleys of Filipino folk tunes, which are performed duding the military and civic parades, as well as formal and semi-tests the playing prowess and physical endurance of the competing musicians.
Incidental pieces for the comedic and other forms of local theater have also been written for the band. The Randall(plucked string ensemble) that was introduced by Spain as the equidistant and compares, has a similar repertoire. It consists of marches and opposable pieces (fast and brilliant music in two), medleys and arrangements of Filipino folk songs, overtures, concentrate music, and folk dance accompaniments. In recent years, Filipino composers have written serious art pieces for the Randall or individual Randall instruments. In modern compositions, the Randall instruments are also combined with symphonic instruments. In the field of vocal music, choral music in the Philippines has dramatically expanded in the last