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    Death Of Salesman (4885 words) Essay

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    Death Of SalesmanArthur Miller is one of the most renowned and important American playwrights toever live. His works include, among others, The Crucible and A View from theBridge. The plays he has written have been criticized for many things, but havebeen praised for much more, including his magical development of the charactersand how his plays provide “good theater”. In his plays, Miller rarely saysanything about his home life, but there are at least some autobiographical”hints” in his plays.

    Arthur Miller is most noted for his continuing effortsto devise suitable new ways to express new and different themes. His play Deathof a Salesman, a modern tragedy, follows along these lines. The themes in thisplay are described and unfurled mostly through Willy Loman’s, the maincharacter in the play, thoughts and experiences. The story takes place mainly inBrooklyn, New York, and it also has some “flashback” scenes occurring in ahotel room in Boston. Willy lives with his wife Linda and their two sons, Biffand Happy in a small house, crowded and boxed in by large apartment buildings.

    The three most important parts of Death of a Salesman are the characters and howthey develop throughout the play; the conflicts, with the most important onesrevolving around Willy; and the masterful use of symbolism and other literarytechniques which lead into the themes that Miller is trying to reveal. ArthurMiller was born in Manhattan on October 17, 1915 to Isidore and Augusta BarnettMiller. His father was a ladies coat manufacturer. Arthur Miller went to grammarschool in Harlem but then moved to Brooklyn because of his father’s losses inthe depression. In Brooklyn he went to James Madison and Abraham Lincoln HighSchools and was an average student there, but did not get accepted to college.

    After high school, he worked for 2 ? years at an auto supply warehouse where hesaved $13 of his $15 a week paycheck. He began to read such classics asDostoevski and his growing knowledge led him to the University of Michigan. While at the University of Michigan, Miller worked many jobs such as a mousetender at the University laboratory and as a night editor at the newspaperMichigan Daily. He began to write plays at college and won 2 of the $500 HopwoodPlaywriting Awards.

    One of the two awarded plays No Villain (1936) won theTheater’s Guild Award for 1938 and the prize of $1250 encouraged him to becomeengaged with Mary Grace Slattery, whom he married in 1940. Miller briefly workedwith the Federal Theater Project and in 1944 he traveled to Army Camps acrossEurope to gather material for a play he was doing. His first Broadway play, TheMan Who Had All the Luck, opened in 1944. Since then he has written 13 awardwinning plays and more than 23 different noted books. He had two children withMary Grace Slattery, Jane and Robert, but divorced her and in 1956 marriedMarilyn Monroe. He then divorced her later that decade, and, in 1962, marriedIngeborg Morath and had one child with her, named Rebecca.

    He now lives on 400acres of land in Connecticut and spends his time gardening, mowing, plantingevergreens, and working as a carpenter. He still writes each day for four to sixhours. His father always told him to read. He once said, “Until the age ofseventeen, I can safely say that I never read a book weightier than ?Tom Swiftand the Rover Boys’, but my father brought me into literature withDickens”(Nelson, Pg.

    59). His father’s good-natured joking was used toinvent the character of Joe Keller’s genial side. After the Fall (1947) is aplay written by Miller where he sneaks in some small autobiographical notes. Thecharacter traits exhibited by the main woman in the play indicate his mother’searly encouragement to his literary promise. The Depression still troubles himtoday, especially for the hard times that he went through as a child.

    In aninterview, he once said, It seems easy to tell how it was to live in thoseyears, but I have made several attempts to tell it and when I do try I know Icannot quite touch that mysterious underwater, vile thing. (Welland, Pg. 38) Hisparents could not afford college for him, so the Depression affected his life inmany ways. Miller hated the McCarthy Witch-hunt trials of the early 1950’s,and once was called before that tribunal but was acquitted of all charges. Hisplay, The Crucible, is a very powerful allegory to the McCarthy trials.

    He hasused the American industry many times in his works and criticizes such socialaspects of American society as it’s bad moral values and people who put toomuch importance on material wealth. Miller especially admired Henrik Ibsen, thegreat Norwegian master of the “well-made”, or tightly constructed, orderedplay. Miller was familiar with the works of Eugene O’Neill, Clifford Odets,and Thornton Wilder as well as that of such European Experimentalists asBertholdt Brecht. All My Sons, Miller’s first drama to receive criticalacclaim seemed to largely follow Ibsen’s style and form, the theme and evenplot are based on some of Ibsen’s greatest works. Miller’s plays received abroad audience and made the dialogue as plain as possible for the “commonman” to understand.

    One critic, Euphemia Wyatt, once said, “I think theclosest parallel to Death of a Salesman is Ibsen’s The Wild Duck, where everyaction in the present works toward revelation of the past” (Welland, Pg. 38). Miller believed that an ordinary person is able to serve well as a tragic heroif he gives up everything in the pursuit of something he wants intensely. Miller’s tragic heroes are usually confused. For example, Willy is confusedabout success and happiness.

    His “solution” to these problems of committingsuicide is a highly questionable one, at the least. But, Willy is planning oncommitting suicide for the betterment of his family, which is an admirableobjective. He is willing to sacrifice everything he has, specifically his life,for his convictions, which makes him, with using Miller’s definition, theepitome of a perfect tragic hero. Miller used very creative and original formatsin almost all of his works. For example, he has Willy holding two conversationsat the same time, which shows the problems going on inside of his head.

    WhenWilly is reminded of the Boston hotel room incident, he relives the event andfeels all the pain like it had just happened. “His language is sometimesconsidered banal and lacking emotional power” (Moss, 125). Some criticsbelieve that Miller has been too negative towards American society by showingmostly only the worst of what people can do. Also, he has been criticized bysaying that he only shows the inhumane, mechanical workings of a business, neverthe loyalty that a company shows to its hardest workers.

    Some critics say his”common man” heroes are “little” and in the worst case, just commonpeople. It has also been said that his heroes are not genuinely human enough toqualify as tragic figures at all. He has also been criticized for usinguntraditional techniques like the Act One “Overture” in The Crucible and the”Requiem” in Death of a Salesman. Miller always tries to find new forms ofstyle to explore new and different themes. Among these themes Miller takes intoeffect the vital contemporary issues of his time.

    Even those who disagree withhis literary, political, or social views say that he does care about society andtries to tie in morals with his works. Many also say his plays provide “goodtheater”, that his stories effect them emotionally, as well as mentally, andthat they “stir the heart”. A critic who, while working for The New YorkTimes, once called Death of a Salesman “one of the finest dramas in the wholerange of the American theater” (Corrigan, Pg. 94) and John Gassner saw it as”one of the triumphs of American stage” (MacNicholas, Pg. 106). So, it canbe stated that Miller’s works command attention.

    Death of a Salesman won thePulitzer Prize, the Drama Critic’s Circle Award and many others when it openedin 1949. Symbolism, foreshadowing and conflict are 3 of the many things thatMiller does best. All of these literary techniques have added a tremendousamount to Death of a Salesman and many others of his works. The play begins whenWilly Loman, a salesman over 60, enters his house unexpectedly, and tells hisworried wife, Linda, that, on his way to appointments in New England, he keptlosing control of his car.

    She urges him to ask Howard Wagner, Willy’s youngboss, for easier work in town so he will not have to drive as far anymore,”Willy, dear. Talk to them again. There’s no reason why you can’t work inNew York” (Miller, Act 1, Scene 1). She also happily states that their twogrown sons, Biff and Happy, are upstairs and sharing their old room. Willy isconcerned that Biff, 34 years old, just quit another job out west. The entireconflict between Biff and Willy can be proven as starting at their meeting inBoston.

    When Biff saw his father, the man he idolized, with another woman,Biff’s faith in him was shattered. To Biff, Willy was a hero, but after thisscene, he denounces him as a fraud. When Biff gets home, he burns his Universityof Virginia shoes, which represented all of Biff’s hopes and dreams. Biff nolonger has feelings for Willy as Linda says, “Biff, dear, if you don’t haveany feeling for him, then you can’t have any feeling for me”(Act 1, Scene9). Linda believes that, since she loves Willy, Biff cannot come and just seeher because it would hurt Willy too much.

    Biff had believed in his father asbeing a great man, and he realizes that he was wrong. When Linda asks Biff whatis wrong between him and his father, Biff recoils and says that it is not hisfault. Biff does not want to tell Linda that the whole problem is because ofWilly’s betrayal of her, so he just keeps it to himself and becomes the objectof her anger. Willy’s problem with society is that modern business isimpersonal. Even though “business is business”(Act 2, Scene 2), Willyshould have been treated like a human being, not just a faceless employee. Howard, the owner of the business that Willy works for, believes that if anemployee does not bring in profits, than that they are expendable.

    He takes nointerest whatsoever in Willy’s past selling records, his association with hisfather, or with pledges made years ago. Howard’s only concern is with theefficient operation of his firm, and he represents the cold, practicalimpersonality of modern business. Charley tries to tell Willy about this,”Willy, when’re you gonna realize that them things don’t mean anything? Younamed him Howard, but you can’t sell that. The only thing you got in this worldis what you can sell. And the funny thing is that you’re a salesman, and youdon’t know that”(Act 2, Scene 6).

    It was hard for Willy to hang onto hispersonal dignity and to live with himself as being such a poor supplier of hisfamily’s needs. He was trapped in a situation and saw himself as a failure. Society forgot Willy Loman existed and did not help him when he needed it, andhis mental state made it impossible for him to help himself. Willy believed thathe had to sell himself more than he had to sell his products.

    His whole outlookon life was wrong; he believed in attributes that a good salesman would beattractive, a good storyteller, well liked and that when he died everyone fromfar and wide would go to his funeral. He got this idea from the story of DaveSingleton, who represented, to Willy, the epitome of success as a salesman. Willy is having mental problems, delusions of his long-dead brother Ben, whom hehas many advice-searching conversations with. Ben represented success to Willyby Ben’s dignity, status and wealth, not his attributes, “There was a manstarted with the clothes on his back and ended up with diamond mines”(Act1, Scene 4). The lies he keeps telling other people and the dreams he has forsuccess actually begin to convince Willy that he was a great salesman who wasknown everywhere he went, “.

    . . ’cause one thing, boys: I have friends. I canpark my car in any street in New England and the cops protect it like theirown”(Act 1, Scene 3).

    His deteriorating condition is exposed many times,but is most prominent when he is talking with both Charlie and Ben at the sametime. Another example of the conflict inside of Willy is his repeated referencesto suicide. In Charley’s office, Willy says, “Funny, y’know? After all thehighways, and the trains, and the appointments, and the years, you end up worthmore dead than alive”(Act 2, Scene 6). Willy has already been contemplatingsuicide, but this is the first, straight-out mention of it. He takes suicide tobe an honorable thing, something that would help his family greatly. His mentalcondition makes him forget the fact that suicide is a cowardly option forgetting out of his responsibilities.

    The climax of the story is after Happy andBiff return home from the dinner with Willy and the whole family has a bigargument. Biff tells Willy that he is sorry for hurting him and says, “If Istrike oil I’ll send you a check. Meantime, forget I’m alive” (Act 2,Scene 14). The father-son conflict between them ends in this conversation. It isthe most emotional part of the play and where Willy is relieved of some guilt.

    The denouement of the play is when Willy realizes that Biff loves him and hasalways loved him. Willy also believes that Biff could one day be a very wealthyman, if only he had some money to start with. Willy believes that the twentythousand dollars that his life insurance policy is worth is enough. With thesethoughts, and his mental problems affecting his thinking, he takes his car andcommits suicide.

    The conclusion to Death of a Salesman takes place at Willy’sfuneral where only his closest friends show up. This only proves even more sothat Willy’s dreams were unrealistic. Biff offers Happy a chance to break awayfrom their father’s far-fetched dreams, but Happy does not take the offer. Charley tries to comfort Linda, but she wants to be alone with Willy. They allleave and Linda tells Willy’s grave that the mortgage on their house isfinally paid off and that she is hurting that he won’t be there to share itwith him. The right term for the language in Death of a Salesman is probablydescribing it as “Modern American”.

    The speech is in the relaxed talkinglanguage of modern America, “Gee, I’d love to go with you sometime, dad”(Act 1, Scene 3). The Lomans live in Brooklyn, but the famous “Noo Yawka”accent is barely heard. The characters use the common speaking slang ofconversation. But, when Happy tries to impress the two prostitutes at therestaurant, he speaks in a more formal tone, “Why don’t you bring-excuse memiss, do you mind? I sell champagne, and I’d like you to try my brand. Bringher a champagne, Stanley” (Act 2, Scene 7).

    Most of the action takes placeinside of Willy’s disturbed mind, as he relives crucial scenes from the pasteven while groping through present-day encounters. The rest of the action takesplace in the kitchen and two bedrooms of Willy’s modest Brooklyn home. It wasonce in a suburban area but is now crowded in by high apartment buildings,”The way they boxed us in here. Bricks and windows, windows and bricks” (Act1, Scene 1). The kitchen has a table in it with three chairs and a refrigerator. No other fixtures are in the kitchen.

    There is a living room in the house, whichis not fully furnished. The boys’ bedroom has a bed with a brass bedstead anda straight chair. On a shelf over the bed is a silver athletic trophy. Thissetting shows the monetary restrictions on the Loman family.

    Howard’s officeis filled with expensive things that make him feel “rich”. This setting isanother way for Miller to show the spite he feels towards people who put toomuch emphasis on material gain. One of the things in his office is a recordingmachine which Howard is obsessed with, “This is the most fascinatingrelaxation I ever found” (Act 2, Scene 2). Frank’s Chop House is a small,family run business with a small dining room.

    This setting is important becauseit serves as the location where Biff and Happy desert their father. The Bostonhotel room has a bed, bathroom, and a small dresser. This setting serves as theplace where Biff loses all his faith in his father, “You fake! You phonylittle fake! You fake!” (2, 13) Willy is a broken exhausted man in his 60’s,soon to end his life. He exaggerates and lies throughout his life to appear morewell off.

    This stems from his feelings of failure. He worked steadily forthirty-six years at a job and has paid off a long-term mortgage. Even though hehas supported his family, his own huge aspirations make him feel like he hasbeen a failure. He also has bad moral values and continuously gives his childrenthe wrong advice. Willy had, at one point in his life, been a very confidentman, but is now weak of both mind and body, as Linda expresses here, “Butyou’re sixty years old.

    They can’t expect you to keep traveling everyweek. ” (1, 1). He wants Biff to love him but knows why Biff is so angry withhim. He wants Biff to have a good life so decides to kill himself and get theinsurance policy for Biff and Happy. Once he sees that Biff loves him, he says”Biff, he likes me” (2, 14), with a great look of joy on his face. Biffprobably changes for the best as the play progresses.

    From a lying, stealingperson in the beginning he changes in the end to where he is reaching for a morerealistic idea of what his life is all about. Biff cared for his father and wasdeeply hurt to see that his father, the man he admired most, was capable ofinfidelity and lying to his wife. He tended to go to extremes, though. Hispassionate insistence, toward the end, that he is “nothing,” or that he andhis father are both “a dime a dozen,” still sounds a little like theuncompromising disclaimer of the younger Biff who had sobbingly burned hissneakers.

    Now he sees his father’s dreams as “All, all wrong. ” Yetalthough he still talks a little like the sports hero, he is now groping towarda more realistic, more mature self-appraisal. He realizes that neither Willy norHappy will ever even get that far. Happy, at first, seems to understand lifebetter than either Biff or Willy, but then it is shown that he is a veryaccomplished liar.

    He has all but convinced himself that he is slated to becomehis store’s next merchandise manager. He cannot quiet his own scruples, heknows he is wrong when he takes bribes, and he has some sense of guilt regardingthe seduction of other men’s fianc?es, but does not stop either practice. Herefuses to face unpleasant truths and is always trying to impress people. Whatever occasional admissions he makes, he will not give up his dream world orhis shabby sexual affairs. He may talk of changing his ways or getting married,but he never sounds convincing.

    He is finally seen rejecting Biff’s invitationto start anew and prefers to justify Willy’s illusive dream of coming out”number-one man” (Requiem). Unlike Biff, Happy learns relatively little fromwitnessing his father’s collapse. Linda is primarily a wife rather than motherin this play. If she is seen as motherly, her ministrations are for Willy ratherthan her sons. She is forever soothing, flattering and tactfully suggestingcourses of action to Willy.

    She is almost always patient and kind to him,ignoring his minor outbursts and considerately accepting with grace such obviousdeceptions as the burrowing of money from Charley. Linda loves Willy and regardshis suffering with compassion. But she humors him as a child rather than meetinghim squarely as an adult. Yet the same mild-mannered, gentle Linda can besurprisingly blunt and harsh, though, when she talks with her sons. She oncetells Happy to his face that he is a “philandering bum” (Act 1, Scene 9).

    After the restaurant disaster, she denounces both her sons fiercely, flings awaytheir flowers and imperiously orders them out of the house. Her one thought isWilly. If their presence cheers him or helps him in some way, she is glad tohave them around, but if what they do further upsets her already disturbedgrown-up “child,” then the sons must go and not return. Bernard and Charleycontrast strikingly to the Lomans. Unlike Willy, Charley lays no claim togreatness, but is content.

    He goes along calmly and quietly, undistinguished butrelatively content. His salvation, he once declared, is that he never took anyinterest in anything. That, of course, is not literally true for he showsunusually generous consideration to Willy and wants to help him, “I amoffering you a job” (Act 2, Scene 6). He set himself a modest goal and issatisfied with modest achievements. Bernard is no match athletically to theLomans, but gets good grades and is forging ahead brilliantly. When he is lastseen, he is heading to Washington, DC to plead a case in front of the SupremeCourt.

    Willy stands in wonder as Bernard leaves and asks Charley why Bernard wasnot bragging, Charley replies, “He don’t have to- he’s gonna do it” (Act2, Scene 5). Charley, on his part, takes issue with Willy on such vital mattersas the importance of being well liked. Yet it is he who in the end defends Willyto Biff in almost melodic terms. Willy sneered at Charley, insulted him, andthen borrowed sizable sums from him, but Charley can say with vehemence,”Nobody dast blame this man” (Requiem). This father-son combination is anexact opposite of Happy and Willy, they understand right and wrong.

    Thesymbolism in Death of a Salesman is a major aspect of the story. One of thesymbols, specifically, Biff’s sports shoes with the University of Virginiaprinted on the sole, represent his confident dream of a bright future through anathletic scholarship. When his dreams are shattered, he destroys the shoes in afit of angry bitterness. The stockings mentioned throughout the play stand forinfidelity. They represent Willy’s attempt to look impressive outside the homeby giving a box of brand new ones to the woman he has an affair with. Lindadarns her own stockings and that makes Willy feel like a bad provider for hisfamily along with reminding him of his affair.

    Ben’s African cache ofdiamonds, to Willy, stands for his insurance policy. It is the great pile ofgold waiting for him if he takes the opportunity. Ben is always seen looking athis watch and this symbolizes the time that Willy has to take the opportunity. Finally, Ben says, “Time, William, time!” (Act 2, Scene 14). With that, Benis telling Willy to go through with his decision. The opportunity that they keepmentioning is Willy committing suicide.

    Another symbol, Dave Singleman, thefamous salesman, stands for success. He was everything that Willy ever dreamedof being. Willy wanted his funeral to be like Singleman’s, with hundreds ofpeople showing up and telling each other how great Willy was. One literarytechnique that Miller used well in Death of a Salesman is foreshadowing.

    Onetime, Willy says to Charley in his office, “Funny, y’know? After all thehighways, and the trains, and the appointments, and the years, you end up worthmore dead than alive” (Act 2, Scene 6). Charley realizes what Willy isimplying and replies to him, “Willy, nobody’s worth anything dead” (Act 2,Scene 6). This shows how Willy has already made up his mind to commit suicide. Also Willy’s Chevrolet and the rubber tube serve as the means for him to dothat.

    These two things also are hints to the outcome of Willy’s life. Anotherliterary technique Miller used is called flashback. The flashbacks are used asrevelations of things mentioned in the present-day conversations. They serve asa tool to help the reader understand the background to the story. Willy is oftencaught reliving the Boston hotel room scene, and is also sometimes reminded ofthe better times he had with his family when he was younger.

    A final literarytechnique Miller used well is irony. The reader sees that the problem betweenWilly and Biff is that Biff has lost all faith in his father. Linda oftenwonders why Biff hates his father so much, and never knows what is really goingon. Biff: Because I know he’s a fake and he doesn’t like anybody around whoknows! Linda: Why a fake? In what way? What do you mean? Biff: Just don’t layit all at my feet. It’s between me and him-that’s all I have to say.

    (Act 1,Scene 9) Linda has no idea of what is behind Biff’s dislike for his father,and is sometimes confused by it. One theme Miller expresses in Death of aSalesman is the corruption of modern business. Willy has worked for over 30years for the Wagner Company, and, even though, to Howard, “Business isbusiness” (Act 2, Scene 2), Willy’s plea of slightly more consideration as ahuman being is wrenching and serves to underscore this theme. Even Charley saysthat personal association does not count for much, but contradicts this when heoffers his broken friend a job. Another theme expressed is unethical practicesand questionable morality.

    Willy seems undisturbed by the news that Biff has notbeen studying. He passes off some of Biff’s actions, such as his cheating onexams and stealing the football, as being “examples of initiative”. Willyalso tries to excuse his infidelity by saying “She’s nothing to me, Biff. Iwas lonely, I was terribly lonely. ” (Act 2, Scene 13).

    Willy also says nothingto Biff when he tells him that he stole a football from his school locker-roomand also Oliver’s personalized pen. Willy, Biff, and Happy all lie repeatedlythroughout the play, with only Biff feeling bad about what he had done. We seethat this family falls apart and that this theme should serve as a moral toanyone who reads it. A final theme seen in Death of a Salesman is familysolidarity.

    Early on in its history, it is seen that the family is very happyand that the two sons admire their hard-working father deeply, “We werelonesome for you pop” (Act 1, Scene 3). As the play progresses, it is shownthat the whole family is unhappy, and that the bond between them all isunraveling as time passes. To resolve their problems, and if they wanted to helpeach other, they would have tried to discuss their problems instead of keepingthem inside and arguing with each other. Willy’s mental problems affectedthis, because he could only talk to his dead brother Ben about his familyproblems.

    If the family had stuck together, they might have pulled throughWilly’s terrible problems. If the play All My Sons signaled the arrival ofArthur Miller as a most promising playwright, Death of a Salesman raised him tothe rank of major American dramatist. He has been considered by many to be thegreatest of American playwrights. Some of Miller’s contemporaries, who arethemselves considered as being some of America’s leading writers, havebestowed high praise upon him and his works.

    Gilbert W. Gabriel described Deathof a Salesman as a “fine thing, finely done” (Corrigan, 95). Also, one ofthe most noticeable writers of all time, Euphemia Wyatt, termed it as being the,”great American tragedy” (Corrigan, 96). After reading this play a fewtimes, the reader is left in an awe-inspired state. It is mind-boggling toactually see the pure essence of Miller’s meaning.

    He develops themes andmorals so well in his works, especially Death of a Salesman, that it is takenfor granted. The messages are easily seen, but never fully understood until thereader first understands the story. Miller’s craftsmanship in this play isindisputable of being on the level of a masterpiece. Every aspect of the play isdone magnificently well, and Miller blends these separate ideas togetherbrilliantly.

    The symbolism and irony, especially, are two of the greatestaspects of the play. Miller’s unorthodox style adds even more to the greatnessof the play. The flashbacks he uses are, at first, a confusing part of the play,but, when read over, only enhance the powerful messages told in it. The readerunderstands easier the problems that Willy faces because of Miller’s style. Without the flashbacks, the background to his mental problems would not havebeen easily seen. The reader also sees the importance of the play in Americansociety.

    Death of a Salesman, among other of his works, is used as a messengerof things Miller would like to see done away with in American society. Hecriticizes material wealth, the lack of American family values, and the lack ofmutual responsibility between people. Miller, with just putting these themesinto a great story, can be considered a good writer. Everything else that he hasdone in his works makes him a true master of plays. Bibliography”Arthur Miller”.

    Microsoft Encarta. CD-ROM. Microsoft Corporation. 1996Corrigan, Robert W.

    Arthur Miller- A Collection of Literary Essays. Englewood,New Jersey: Dutton; 1969. Hayman, Ronald. Arthur Miller. London: HeinemannEducational; 1960.

    MacNicholas, John. “Arthur Miller”. DLB (Volume 7, Part2). Detroit: Bruccoli Clark Books; 1981. PP 86-111.

    Miller, Arthur. Death of aSalesman. Ringwood, Victoria, Australia: Penguin Plays; 1976. Moss, Leonard.

    Arthur Miller. New York: McKay; 1970. Murray, Edward. Arthur Miller: Dramatist. New York: F. Unger Press; 1967.

    Nelson, Benjamin. Arthur Miller- Portrait of aPlaywright. New York: Grove Press; 1961. Unger, Leonard. “Arthur Miller”.

    American Writers- A Collection of Literary Biographies. (Volume 4). New York:Simon and Schuster MacMillan; 1974. PP 145-169. Welland, Dennis.

    Arthur Miller. New York: Twayne; 1967.

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