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    Criminology Notes Essay (496 words)

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    Chapter 1Criminology- an academic discipline that makes use of scientific methods tostudy the nature that causes extent and control of crime2 Levels of Explanations 1. Micro- the individual 2. Macro- societal levels of crime (rate) (Places are compound)*Criminology is interdisciplinaryThe field is comprised of the study related to a bunch of differentdisciplines ( sociology, psychology, and political science)5 Schools of Thought 1. Classical School 2.

    Positivism 3. Sociological Crim 4. Conflict Crim 5. ContemporarySchool- compiled of a bunch of theories having a common theme 1. 1700’s Classical School- blames individual Substance – A.

    Freewill – choices B. Rationality- thinks before they act C. Deterrence- cost out weighs benefits 2. 1800’s Positivism Substances – A.

    prediction based on scientific methods B. limits on freewill . Early positivist were biological used poor methods 3. Sociological Crim A.

    Positivistic B. Causes is social factors – Chicago Schools – bad place – Socialization – family, peers 4. Conflict Crim A. Marx B.

    Labeling – Economic system creates imbalances (capitalism) – Creates class conflict – Crime is an act of “defiance” 5. Contemparary Crim A. Integrated theories B. Life courseChapter 2 1. Official Stats (UCR) Uniform Crime Reports 2.

    Victimization Survey (NCVS) 3. Self Reports 1. UCR- local PD’s who compile reports, then filed by the FBI – macro/ micro – voluntary – measure only 8 index crimes + 1933 – trends over time + Good measure for serious crimes, people care enough to report, are committed by strangers – Hierarchical crime in that are higher crimes – Dangers of “over” count and “under” count (filtering) – “Dark figure of crimes” – only 8 crimes count – no federal crime – no individual data 2. NCVS – Been around since the 60’s – Conducted by the Census Bureau – Nationwide survey of thousands (50,000) – In person survey – Prior 6 months of the crime + Taps “dark figure” of crime + Influences on victimizations – Interviewer related problems – Non recall – Lying – Possibility of bias questioning – Doesn’t count counties crimes – Doesn’t measure serious crimes really well because they are rare, so it doesn’t get picked up – Sampling error – Age of respondents 3. How they got there? Who collects them? What are strengths and weaknesses . Self Reports – Anonymous and confidential – Main topic- delinquency – Often done in prison + good measure at delinquency + gets at attitudes regarding offending + individual levels of data regarding offending – inaccurate reports – sampling error – serious violent crimes don’t show up .

    1930 – 1960 crime rates rose. 1960 – 1980 it raised more . the rate of crime between 1960 – 1980 tripled 4. Factors Correlated with Rates – age demographics – how many young males are in pop.

    Gender – economy – short term changes seem to have little effect – long term down slides increase crime rates probably – drug use – 2/3 of all arrested are either high or drunk – casual orderBivariate Correlations – means two things going on. Take on factor, thencrime . multivariate 5. Social Problems and Crime – rate of poverty – population density – population mobility – rate of single parents (female head of households) – drop out rates (school)6. .

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