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Criminology Notes Essay

Chapter 1

Criminology- an academic discipline that makes use of scientific methods to
study the nature that causes extent and control of crime

2 Levels of Explanations
1. Micro- the individual
2. Macro- societal levels of crime (rate)
(Places are compound)

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*Criminology is interdisciplinary

The field is comprised of the study related to a bunch of different
disciplines ( sociology, psychology, and political science)

5 Schools of Thought
1. Classical School
2. Positivism
3.

Sociological Crim
4. Conflict Crim
5. Contemporary

School- compiled of a bunch of theories having a common theme

1. 1700’s Classical School- blames individual
Substance – A. Freewill – choices
B. Rationality- thinks before they act
C.

Deterrence- cost out weighs benefits

2. 1800’s Positivism
Substances – A. prediction based on scientific methods
B. limits on freewill
. Early positivist were biological used poor methods

3. Sociological Crim
A.

Positivistic
B. Causes is social factors
– Chicago Schools – bad place
– Socialization – family, peers

4. Conflict Crim
A. Marx
B. Labeling
– Economic system creates imbalances (capitalism)
– Creates class conflict
– Crime is an act of “defiance”

5. Contemparary Crim
A.

Integrated theories
B. Life course

Chapter 2

1. Official Stats (UCR) Uniform Crime Reports
2. Victimization Survey (NCVS)
3. Self Reports

1. UCR- local PD’s who compile reports, then filed by the FBI
– macro/ micro
– voluntary
– measure only 8 index crimes

+ 1933 – trends over time
+ Good measure for serious crimes, people care enough to report, are
committed by strangers
– Hierarchical crime in that are higher crimes
– Dangers of “over” count and “under” count (filtering)
– “Dark figure of crimes”
– only 8 crimes count
– no federal crime
– no individual data

2.

NCVS
– Been around since the 60’s
– Conducted by the Census Bureau
– Nationwide survey of thousands (50,000)
– In person survey
– Prior 6 months of the crime
+ Taps “dark figure” of crime
+ Influences on victimizations
– Interviewer related problems
– Non recall
– Lying
– Possibility of bias questioning
– Doesn’t count counties crimes
– Doesn’t measure serious crimes really well because they are rare, so
it doesn’t get picked up
– Sampling error
– Age of respondents
3. How they got there? Who collects them? What are strengths and
weaknesses
. Self Reports
– Anonymous and confidential
– Main topic- delinquency
– Often done in prison
+ good measure at delinquency
+ gets at attitudes regarding offending
+ individual levels of data regarding offending
– inaccurate reports
– sampling error
– serious violent crimes don’t show up
. 1930 – 1960 crime rates rose. 1960 – 1980 it raised more
. the rate of crime between 1960 – 1980 tripled

4.

Factors Correlated with Rates
– age demographics – how many young males are in pop.
Gender
– economy
– short term changes seem to have little effect
– long term down slides increase crime rates probably
– drug use
– 2/3 of all arrested are either high or drunk
– casual order

Bivariate Correlations – means two things going on. Take on factor, then
crime
. multivariate

5. Social Problems and Crime
– rate of poverty
– population density
– population mobility
– rate of single parents (female head of households)
– drop out rates (school)

6. .

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Criminology Notes Essay
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Chapter 1 Criminology- an academic discipline that makes use of scientific methods to study the nature that causes extent and control of crime 2 Levels of Explanations 1. Micro- the individual 2. Macro- societal levels of crime (rate) (Places are compound) *Criminology is interdisciplinary The field is comprised of the study related to a bunch of different disciplines ( sociology, psychology, and political science) 5 Schools of Thought 1. Classical School
2019-02-12 08:15:22
Criminology Notes Essay
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