Congenital heart defects are mainly caused by one of three things. The first is a block of blood flow in the heart or vessels. The second is caused by blood flowing through the heart where its pattern is abnormal. Rare effects can happen such as when only one functional ventricle is present or when together the pulmonary artery ( and aorta arise from the same ventricle meaning double outlet-ventricles. Another rare effect happens when either side of the heart is incompletely formed (hyperplasic heart).
Another example is congenital cyanotic heart defect. This is when blood pumped to the body contains less then the regular amount of oxygen required for babies. This will result is a blue discoloration of the skin and is the reason why the term blue babies is used.
Babies are born with congenital heart defects because their mother took drugs. If a woman is taken drugs while she is pregnant, her baby is also taken the same drugs. Also her baby is receiving the same dose that she is taken, which is way above the normal dose a baby should take of anything.
If a women is pregnant she should remain off drugs to protect her baby from congenital heart defects.
People with diabetes are 2-4 times more likely to suffer from heart disease. Roughly that is more then 77,000 deaths a year. Heart disease with diabetes is caused by atherosclerosis, which is extra buildup on the inner walls of large blood vessels, restricting the flow of blood.
Each year 12, 000- 24,000 people lose their sight because of diabetes. Right now it is the number one leading cause of blindness for people between 20 and 74.
Blindness is caused by diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy disease results from opposing effects on the blood vessels which supply the retina.
Diabetics are 17 times more likely to develop kidney disease. Ten to twenty-one percent of all people with diabetes will eventually develop kidney disease. Kidney disease is due to diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is an impairment due to the long standing effects of diabetes on the microvasulature(one of the structures which comprise the functional unit in the kidney)of the kidney.