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    Civil Rights

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    great migration
    movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
    roaring twenties
    nickname for the 1920’s becasue of the booming economy and fast pace of life during that era.
    harlem renaissance
    a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
    aaron douglas
    A Harlem Renaissance painter whose work celebrates African American versatility and adaptability, depicting people in a variety of settings.
    song of the towers
    Aaron Douglas, 1934
    i too, sing america
    Harlem Renaissance
    Author: Langston Hughes
    negro speaks of rivers
    Harlem Renaissance
    Author: Langston Hughes
    zora neale hurston
    African American writer and folklore scholar who played a key role in the Harlem Renaissance
    their eyes were watching god
    Zora Neale Hurston
    zora neale hurston
    duke ellington
    Born in Chicago middle class. moved to Harlem in 1923 and began playing at the cotton club. Composer, pianist and band leader. Most influential figures in jazz.
    louis armstrong
    Leading African American jazz musician during the Harlem Renaissance; he was a talented trumpeter whose style influenced many later musicians.
    josephine baker
    African-American actress, singer, opera performer, first black women to star in major motion picture; she moved to France
    a genre of popular music that originated in New Orleans around 1900 and developed through increasingly complex styles
    cotton club
    a speak easy where blacks played but could not be apart of the audience. One of the most famous harlem nightspots.
    apollo theater
    Considered to be the most important African American theater in the U.S.
    great depression
    the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s
    eleanor roosevelt
    FDR’s Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
    black cabinet
    group of African Americans FDR appointed to key Government positions; served as unofficial advisors to the president.
    mary bethune
    United States educator who worked to improve race relations and educational opportunities for Black Americans (1875-1955)
    congress of industrial organizations
    Union organization of unskilled workers; broke away from the American Federation of Labor in 1935 and rejoined it in 1955
    john l lewis
    long-time labor leader who organized and led the first important unskilled workers labor union, called in to represent union during sit-down strike
    philip randolph
    pesident and founder of the brotherhood of sleeping car Porters and the nations most respected African American labor leader. He protested discrimination both in the military and in the industry. He also organized a march on washington where he called on african americans everywhere to come to the capitol and march. roosevelt asked Randolph to back off but in the end Roosevelt was the one to back off. Roosevelt ordered that all workers in defense industries be treated without discrimination.
    brotherhood of sleeping car porters
    Union founded by A.Philip Randolph in 1925 to help African Americans who worked for the Pullman Company.
    executive order 8802
    In 1941 FDR passed it which prohibited discriminatory employment practices by fed agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war related work. It established the Fair Employment Practices Commission to enforce the new policy.
    double v campaign
    victory over racism in germany and a home during WWII, started by NAACP, black soldiers saw segregation at home and lack of overseas
    truman’s fair deal
    extension of new deal goals;promoted full employment, higher minimum wage,greater social security, and housing assistance
    executive order 9981
    Establishes equality of treatment and opportunity in the Armed Services for people of all race, religions, or national origins
    jackie robinson
    The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.
    plessy vs ferguson
    a case that was brought to supreme court by black lawsuits to challenge the legality of segregation. The court ruled that segregation was legal as long as it was “equal”
    seperate but equal
    the judicial precedent established by in the Plessy v Ferguson decision that enabled states to interpret the equal protection provision of the fourteenth amendment as a means of establishing segregation
    1954. Determined that “separate but equal” educational facilities denied equal educational opportunities. Overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson, 1896. Paved way for integration and the civil rights movement.
    linda brown
    Black girl who was refused enrollment in the closest school to her house because of segregation.
    oliver brown
    in 1950, _ sued in fed court over the segregation of the school system in topeka, kansas. the sc’s 1954 decision in the case, which held that separate schools were inherently unequal, was imp for several reasons
    thurgood marshall
    American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
    doll test
    B and W dolls shown to B and W children; W doll said to have positive attributes; B doll didn’t
    brown II
    another case issued by the Supreme Court, implementing the order from 1954, ruling that communities must work to desegregate their schools with all deliberate speed, but set no timetable and left specific decisions up to lower courts.
    dejure segregation
    segregation by law
    warren court
    the chief justice that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in Brown v. Board of Education (1954); he was the first justice to help the civil rights movement, judicial activism
    emmett till
    Murdered in 1955 for whistling at a white woman by her husband and his friends. They kidnapped him and brutally killed him. his death led to the American Civil Rights movement.
    little rock central high school
    Was the site of forced desegregation in 1957 when the governor of Alabama wouldn’t allow the “Little Rock nine” access to the school. President Eisenhower then mobilized the 101st airborne division to force the school to admit the students.
    little rock nine
    In September 1957 the school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school with 2,000 white students. The governor ordered troops from Arkansas National Guard to prevent the nine from entering the school. The next day as the National Guard troops surrounded the school, an angry white mob joined the troops to protest the integration plan and to intimidate the AA students trying to register. The mob violence pushed Eisenhower’s patience to the breaking point. He immediately ordered the US Army to send troops to Little Rock to protect and escort them for the full school year.
    governor faubus
    The governor of Arkansas who tried to halt integration by calling in the Arkansas National Guard.
    dwight d eisenhower
    leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2–leader of troops in Africa and commander in DDay invasion-elected president-president during integration of Little Rock Central High School
    101st airborne division
    army division sent to Little Rock to prevent violence and protect LR 9 from harassment and bullying
    rosa parks
    United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
    martin luther king jr
    U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
    civil disobedience
    a group’s refusal to obey a law because they believe the law is immoral (as in protest against discrimination)
    montgomery alabama bus boycott
    the first organized movement by african americans to fight segregation; intended to oppose the city’s policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. Many historically significant figures of the civil rights movement were involved in the boycott
    congress of racial equality
    CORE was a civil rights organization. They were famous for freedom rides which drew attention to Southern barbarity, leading to the passing of civil rights legislation.
    southern christian leadership conference
    An organization founded by MLK Jr., to direct the crusade against segregation. Its weapon was passive resistance that stressed nonviolence and love, and its tactic direct, though peaceful, confrontation.
    student nonviolent coordinating committee
    Involved in the American Civil Rights Movement formed by students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism.
    greensboro sit in
    black students politely order food from restraunt, not served, sat in place for days & days, gathering supporters.
    freedom rides
    a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961
    voter education project
    project of the SNCC where volunteers went to rural areas in the Deep South to register African Americans to vote; began with Robert Moses
    selma march
    King organized this major demonstration in Alabama to press for the right of blacks to register to vote. Selma sheriff led local police in a televised brutal attack on demonstrators. Two northern white marchers were murdered, and the outrage that came after helped LBJ pass the Civil Rights Act of 1965.
    letter from birmingham
    A letter Martin Luther King wrote from jail in Birmingham in which he preached civil disobediance and urged children and elderly to play a role
    march on washington
    held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous “I have a dream…” speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
    i have a dream speech
    A speech given by Martin Luther King, Jr. at the demonstration of freedom in 1963 at the Lincoln Memorial. It was an event related to the civil rights movement of the 1960’s to unify citizens in accepting diversity and eliminating discrimination against African-Americans
    dallas texas
    the city where John F. Kennedy was assasinated
    lee harvey oswald
    United States assassin of President John F. Kennedy (1939-1963)
    lyndon baines johnson
    36th president took over after JFK was assassinated “war on poverty”
    war on poverty
    President Lyndon B. Johnson’s program in the 1960’s to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly
    great society
    President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
    economic opportunity act 1964
    This act was central to Johnson’s Great Society campaign and its War on Poverty. Implemented by the since disbanded Office of Economic Opportunity, the Act included several social programs to promote the health, education, and general welfare of the poor. Although most of the initiatives in the Act have since been modified, weakened, or altogether rolled back, its remaining programs include Head Start, and Job Corps. Remaining War on Poverty programs are managed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’s Office of Community Services and the U.S. Department of Labor.
    head start
    a preschool program for children from low-income families that also provides healthcare, nutrition services, and social services
    job corps
    a work training programe for young people between the ages of 16 and 21
    a federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older
    a federal and state assistance program that pays for health care services for people who cannot afford them
    civil rights act of 1964
    This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
    voting rights act of 1965
    1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
    twenty fourth amendment
    It outlawed taxing voters, i.e. poll taxes, at presidential or congressional elections, as an effort to remove barriers to Black voters.
    affirmative action
    a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
    executive order 11246
    Prohibits federal contractors and subcontractors from discriminating based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
    the kerner commision
    Was a meeting instituted by Johnson and gathered to see if
    his social policies were working, but they came to find that they were not
    kerner report
    This commission, chaired by Otto Kerner, decided that the race riots were due to the formation of two different American cultures: inner-city Blacks and suburban Whites.
    mississippi freedom democratic party
    Group that sent its own delegates to the Democratic National Convention in 1964 to protest discrimination against black voters in Mississippi
    fanny lou hamer
    American voting rights activist, instrumental in organizing the Freedom Summer for SNCC, vice chair of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, which challenged state’s regular Democratic delegation at convention because Mississippi left blacks out of political process, attended 1964 Democratic National Convention
    elijah muhammad
    leader of Black Muslims who campaigned for independence for Black Americans (1897-1975)
    nation of islam
    a group of militant Black Americans who profess Islamic religious beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans

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