What were origins and innovations of the Renaissance?
Migration (Push factors- religious persecution, lack of resources, natural disaster, political persecution, war. Pull factor- Fertile land, promise of freedom, employment, safety
Period of rebirth of art and learning in Europe lasting from about 1300 to 1600
Focus on human potential and achievements
Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
People who financially supported artists
Art technique that re-creates three dimensions
Use of native language instead of classical Latin
What are three reasons why the Renaissance began in Italy?
1. Italy had a lot important cities where exchange of ideas take place.
2. There were also much wealth in these cities from merchants and bankers.
3. lastly, Italian artists were very inspired by the style of buildings.
What are secular ideas?
Secular ideas are ideas concerning the world instead of the spiritual world.
How did the methods and subjects in art change?
Similar to the Greek golden age, the renaissance artists began to make their paintings more realistic.
What did Renaissance writers write about?
The Renaissance writers usually wrote in a new writing called vernacular and began to express their own feelings.
How did the Renaissance ideas spread?
Prediction- trade and migration
Famous Renaissance writer
German craftsman who developed the printing press
How was the northern Renaissance different from the Renaissance in Italy?
The Northern Renaissance was different because new ideas began to spread because the bubonic plague had left and the Hundred Year war was ending.
What did northern European artists paint?
Northern Europeans artists painted religious subjects and realistic landscapes.
Who were two of the most famous writers of the northern Renaissance?
the two most famous writers were William Shakespeare and Thomas Moore
What effects did the printing press have on northern European life?
The printing press made communication more effective and inexpensive.
Explain the causes and effects of Protestant Reformation.
Improvement in society
Lack of communication
Like: Neolithic Revolution, Renaissance
Release from punishments due for a sin
16th-century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of new Christian churches
Member of a Protestant church founded on the teachings of Martin Luther
Member of a Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation
Peace of Augsburg
Agreement in 1555 declaring that the religion of each German state
would be decided by its ruler
Cancel or put an end to
Relating to the Church of England
What kinds of changes did Church critics want to make?
The Church critics wanted to make changes that would make the church become more spiritual and humble because popes were more concerned about secular things.
What role did Martin Luther play in the Reformation?
Martin Luther played a great role in the Reformation by protesting against indulgences and he did this by posting a protest on the castle church.
Why did Luther’s ideas lead to war?
Luther’s ideas lead to war because the protestants and the Catholics began to disagree that church was corrupted.
What role did Henry VIII play in creating the Church of England?
Henry VIII played a significant role in creating the church of England which he made through a set of laws. His daughter, Elizabeth changed the name of the Angelican Church.
Evaluate the changes in Protestantism and Catholic Reformation.
Doctrine that God has decided all things beforehand, including which people will be saved
Religious teachings based on the ideas of the reformer John Calvin
Government controlled by religious leaders
Member of a Protestant church governed by elders and founded by John Knox
Member of a Protestant group during the Reformation who believed only adults should be baptized. Also believed that church and state should be separate
16th-century Catholic reform movement in response to Protestant Reformation
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius of Loyola
Council of Trent
Meeting of Roman Catholic leaders to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers
What is Calvinism?
Calvinism is the belief in the reformer John Calvin’s ideas.
Who were two women who played important roles in the Reformation?
1. Martin Luther’s wife: Katherina von Bora
2. Marguerite of Navarre who protected Calvin from being killed
What happened at the Council of Trent?
At the Council of Trent, doctrines were passed that said the churches view of the bible was final.
What was the result of the declining authority of the church?
The result of the declining authority, society is becoming more about secular things and about economics