Cells are the basic unit of all life. Even though they are the smallest
unit of life they are highly complex. Each cell has enough parts to it to
practically survive on its own. There are two types of cells; the plant cell and
the animal cell. These two cells do not vary intensely, but there are some
major factors that separate them completely.
Animal cells are highly organized. The many parts that make up the cell
work in synch with each other. These parts are called organelles. The most
important organelle in the cell is the nucleus. The nucleus holds all of the
blueprint information for the cell. The DNA of a cell is found in the nucleus
along with RNA. The nucleus is surrounded by two membranes due to the need to
be highly selective with materials that enter the cell’s nucleus. The cell
itself is surrounded by a membrane. In between the membrane of the nucleus and
the cell membrane is cytoplasm. It is in the cytoplasm where all of the other
organelles are stored. There are six main organelles in the cytoplasm. First,
the mitochondria, which provides energy to the cell through ATP and respiration.
Then there is the endoplasmic reticulum which separates parts of the cell. Then
there is the Golgi apparatus which is used for sorting, storing, and secretion
for the cell. Next are lysosomes, which hydrolyze macromolecules. Then there
are centrioles that play a major role in cell division. And lastly there are
vacuoles which have a variety of storage functions.
The plant cell is similar in most ways. The only really big differences
between the plant cell and the animal cell are as follows. The first is the
outer membrane. The plant cell has a cell wall that highly acts as support to
the cell, where the animal cell has a more flexible, softer outer membrane.
Also in the plant cell are chloroplasts, which are not in the animal cell.
Chloroplasts carry out photosynthesis which is the plants ability to make it’s
own food. This also accounts for the large central vacuole in the plant cell.
It is used for storage.