ertaining to human conduct in the area ofbiology and includes those related to the practice of medicine, has been an important aspect ofall areas in the scientific field (Bernstein, Maurice, M.
D. ). It is one of the factors that sayswhether or not certain scientific research can go on, and if it can, under which rules andregulations it must abide by. One of the most recent and controversial issues facing our societytoday is the idea of cloning. On February 23, 1997, Ian Wilmut, a Scottish scientist, along withhis colleagues at the Roslin Institute and PPL Therapeutics, announced to the world that theyhad cloned a lamb, which they named Dolly, after Dolly Parton, from an adult sheep (Mario,Christopher). The two share the same nucleic DNA, but differ in terms of their mitochondrial DNA,which is vitally important for the regulation of the cell.
The media and the press ignored this fact,and thus claimed that Dolly and her “mother” were genetically identical, which sparked a fury ofoutcry all around the world. The technique of transferring a nucleus from a somatic cell into anegg cell of which the nucleus had been removed, called nuclear transplantation, is an extension ofresearch that had been ongoing for over 40 years. Up until now, scientists thought that adult cells could not be “reprogrammed” to behavelike a fertilized egg and create an embryo, but the evidence obtained by Dollys success proveotherwise. The issues of cloning have been around for a long time, starting with the publication ofJoshua Lederbergs 1966 article on cloning in the American Naturalist, and the publics interesthas been perked by many sci-fi books, films, and movies including Aldous Huxleys 1932 novel”Brave New World,” 1973s “Sleeper,” the 1978 film “The Boys from Brazil,” and mostrecently, the movie “Multiplicity” (Mario, Christopher). The ethical, legal, and moral issuesaroused by cloning have been raised by previous projects, and are now simply emerging again,with its focus on three major points: the shift from sexual reproduction with that of asexualreplication of existing genes; the ability to predetermine the genes of a child; and the ability tocreate many genetically identical children (Report/Recommendations of the NBAC). The public responded to Dolly with a mixture of fear and excitement, questioning thebenefits and the disasters that could happen in the future if research was to continue.
From a polltaken by Maurice Bernstein, M. D. , the results showed that 72% of the votes said that cloningshould be prohibited by law. They believe that cloning for any reason would be an unethical andimmoral thing to do. A common misconception of cloning is that it is the instantaneous creationof a fully grown adult from the cells of the individual. Also, that an exact copy, although muchyounger, of an existing person could be made, reflecting the belief that ones genes bear a simplerelationship to the physical and psychological traits that make up a person.
This is one point thatthose against cloning are often worried about. That the clone would have no soul, no mind, nofeelings or emotions of their own, no say in how their life will be with their destiny predeterminedfor them, and that each individual clone would not be unique. They are also afraid that the clonewill not be treated like a person, more like a worthless second copy, or a fill-in for what wasthere but now is lost. Although the genes do play an important part, its the interaction among apersons genetic inheritance, their environment, memories, different life experiences, and theprocess of learning that result in the uniqueness of each individual (Mario, Christopher). People think that by cloning, we are taking the creation of life into our own hands, givingus all the control over something never before in our power, and in essence “playing God”(Mario, Christopher). But what they dont realize is that for hundreds of years, humankind hasbeen controlling nature with the domestication of plants and animals, which is a violation of thenatural order of things as God has put them here on earth.
Another point that those againstcloning seem to agree on is the potential of physical harm put upon those involved with theprocess. First, Dolly was the only success out of 277 attempts. With humans, there is the risk ofhormonal mutations, multiple miscarriages, and .