INTRODUCTION: (2 Min.)
1. GAIN ATTENTION: In December of 1814, 11,000 to 14,450 of Great Britain’s finest troops were lead to destroy a much smaller force of 3,500 to 5,000 United States troops. This was part of the War of 1812 that was fought from June 1812 to the spring of 1815. The War of 1812 was considered a second war for independence with its high point being the Battle of New Orleans on January 8, 1815. Under the command of General Andrew Jackson the Marines soundly defeated British forces that were attacking the city of New Orleans. The British lost approximately 2,000 men while American losses were less 100.Thereafter, Great Britain finally recognized the United States as an independent nation with the power to defend itself.
2. OVERVIEW: The purpose of this period of instruction is to familiarize the student with the basic history of the significance on the Battle of New Orleans. To do this we will cover and discuss the actions that lead to the Battle of New Orleans, military strategies and finally the outcome. This period of instruction is in relation to Marine Corps history.
3. INTRODUCE LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
a. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Without the aid of notes and in accordance with the United States Marine Corps-Battle Drill Guide book 1, describe the Battle of New Orleans.
b. ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Without the aid of notes and in accordance with the reference:
(1) State why the Battle of New Orleans took place. (CPLX1.1a)
(2) State the military strategies of enemy and friendly forces. (CPLX1.1b)
(3) State the outcome of the Battle of New Orleans. (CPLX1.1c)
4. METHOD/MEDIA: I will present this material using the lecture method, with the aid of placards.
5. EVALUATION: There will not be a post test after this period of instruction.
TRANSITION: If there are no questions on the learning objectives, the method I will use to present this period of instruction or the way in which you will be evaluated, let’s take a look at when and where the Battle of New Orleans took place
1. WHY THE BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS TOOK PLACE: (CPLX1.1a)
a. (ON PLACARD #1 MAJOR GENERAL ANDREW JACKSON) On January 8, 1815 the Battle of New Orleans took place on the battle ground of Chalmette where a diverse force of marines, sailors, and militia including indians and African American defeated Britians finest white and black troops from Europe and the West Indies. (OFF PLACARD #1)
b. The Battle of New Orleans was just one of the many battles that took place as a result of the War of 1812. In late 1814 New Orleans was home to a population of French, Spanish, African, Anglo and Creole peoples dedicated to pursuing economic opportunism and the joys of life. It also occupied a strategic place on the map. Located just 100 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River, the Crescent City offered a tempting prize to a British military still buoyant over the burning of Washington, D.C. To capture the city, Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane fitted out a naval flotilla of more than 50 ships to transport 10,000 veteran troops from Jamaica. They were led, the 37-year-old brother-in-law of the Duke of Wellington and a much-decorated general officer. For protection, the citizens of southern Louisiana looked to Major General Andrew Jackson, known to his men as “Old Hickory.” Jackson arrived in new Orleans in the late fall of 1814 and quickly prepared a defense Marines along the city’s many avenues of approach.
TRANSITION: We now know strategic significance and why the Battle of New Orleans took place. Now lets take a look at the strategies that General Andrew Jackson took which as a result spared American lives and led to the victory of the battle.
2. MILITARY STRATEGIES OF ENEMY AND FRIENDLY FORCES: (CPLX1.1b)
a. General Jackson established his base of operations in New Orleans in late November 1814 to concentrate United States military efforts on the Mississippi River after discovering that British Vice-Admiral Cochrane intended to direct the Gulf Coast campaign against New Orleans. Distrustful of Jackson at first, citizens of New Orleans formed committees of public safety to protect their interests; they feared that Jackson would burn the city rather than surrender it.
b. (ON PLACARD #2 AVENUES OF APPROACH) The British had many potential routes in attacking New Orleans from their base in Jamaica. They ultimately chose to approach the city from the east by way of Lake Borgne and Bayou Bienvenu, which brought them within a mile of the Mississippi. (OFF PLACARD #2)
TRANSITION: Since there are no further questions regarding the significant AA lets move on to the final outcome of the battle.
3. OUTCOME OF THE BATTLE NEW ORLEANS: (CPLX1.1c)
a. (ON PLACARD #3 BRITISH ATTEMPTS TO TAKE KEY STATEGIC CITIES) General Jackson’s plans for defense of the city were thwarted by the British capture of five American gunboats in Lake Borgne in the first battle near New Orleans in December 1814. Despite the loss, American casualties numbered fewer than those of the British. In the next major battle during the night of December 23, United States and British forces fought on land on the Viller and adjacent plantations below the city, ending in a stalemate that threw the British off balance and battered their morale. The cost of the engagement was high: 277 British casualties, including 46 killed, and 213 United States casualties, including 24 killed. Hardest hit was Beale’s rifle company, composed primarily of New Orleans lawyers and merchants. (OFF PLACARD #3)
b. Although United States and British commissioners met in Ghent, Belgium, on December 24 to sign a peace treaty to end the War of 1812, the battle raged on around New Orleans. A major American victory came on New Year’s Day, with British casualties outnumbering those on the United States side by more than two to one.
c. Finally, on January 8, the day commemorated today as the victory day in the Battle of New Orleans, two British generals, including Major General Pakenham, were killed in battle, with a third severely wounded. Soldiers described battlefield action as confused and haphazard in the dark hours of that foggy morning. Britain suffered over 2,000 casualties in that decisive battle, whereas Jackson lost only 71 men. The British forces withdrew through Lake Borgne and into the Gulf, firing on Fort St. Philip for over a week before sailing out to sea for good.
TRANSITION: Now that we have covered the significant events and key personnel in the Battle of New Orleans, are there any questions.
PRACTICE: Not required.
PROVIDE HELP: Not required.
TRANSITION: Since there are no further questions this period of instruction, let’s have an opportunity for questions.
OPPORTUNITY FOR QUESTIONS:(2 Min.)
a. QUESTIONS FROM THE CLASS:
a. QUESTION TO THE CLASS:
a. QUESTION: How many American troops killed during the Battle of New Orleans?
b. ANSWER: 71 men
1. During this period of instruction, we have covered important information about the Battle of New Orleans. With this information you the student are able to gain a better understanding of Marine Corps history and the significance of the very important Battle of New Orleans.
LIST OF SUPPORTING PAPERS
1. Student Outline
2. Placards#1-General Andrew Jackson
#2-Avenue of Aproach
#3-British attempts to take