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    APUSH 1920’s Social/Economic

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    Bolshevik Revolution 1917
    revolution led by Lenin and Trotsky in Russia, seized control of Petrograd, which sent Russia into a state of anarchy
    Seattle Strike 1919
    when over 65,000 supported by the IWW and AFL striked for higher wages, due to their displeasure w/ WWI wage controls; strike lasted almost a week
    Palmer Raids 1920
    operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
    A Mitchell Palmer
    appointed to Attorney General in 1919 by Wilson; led Palmer Raids, where he attempted to deport radicals in response to their threats on his life; he deported 556
    Wall Street Bomb Sept 16 1920
    timed bomb, supposedly set up by Galleanist anarchists, kills 38 and causes $2 million in property damage to JP Morgan bank
    Criminal Syndicalism Laws
    several states passed laws outlawing the advocacy of violence to secure social change during Red Scare
    NY State Legislature Socialists
    Jan 7, 1920 – NY State Assembly speaker Thaddeus Sweet suspends Samuel DeWitt, Samuel Orr, Louis Waldman, Charles Solomon, August Claessens (the 5 socialist members of the Assembly)
    Nicolo Sacco Bartolomeo Vanzetti
    2 Italian, atheist, anarchist, draft dodgers who were convicted in 1921 of murdering a MA paymaster; liberals and radicals defended these 2, who were given unfair treatment; executed in 1927, known as martyrs in “class struggle”
    anti-foreign, -Catholic, -black, -Jewish, -pacifist, -Communist, -internationalist, -evolutionist, -bootlegger, -gambling, -adultery, -birth control; extremist ultraconservatives; 5 million members in mid 1920s; collapses during the late 1920s due to public recoil, embezzlement charges of Klan officials
    Emergency Quota Act 1921
    established limited # of immigrants at 3% of people of same nationality living in US in 1910
    illegal saloons that sold liquor during prohibition, used passwords to retain secrecy
    smugglers of alcohol illegally to circumvent prohibition
    Al Capone
    American gangster dedicated to bootlegging and smuggling liquor; waged 6 years of gang warfare; convicted of St Valentine’s Day massacre in 1929
    organized crime
    caused by prohibition, systematic crime activity for profit on a city wide/interstate/international level; secret illegal operations organized by gangs, who worked in prostitution/gambling/narcotics; charged merchants “protection money”, used bribery and blackmail
    St Valentine’s Day massacre 1929
    conflict between 2 powerful gangs in Chicago, led to huge fight and death of 7; was the Italian gang, led by Al Capone vs Irish gang, led by Bugs Moran; Capone convicted
    Charles Lindbergh
    1st person to fly a plane solo West to East across the Atlantic; a national hero, nicknamed ‘Spirit of st Louis’
    Lindbergh Law 1932
    interstate abduction in certain circumstances was considered a death-penalty offense; created after Charles Lindbergh’s infant son was kidnapped and murdered
    John Dewey
    professor at Columbia; “learning by doing, education for life”; urged progressive education
    anti teaching of evolution
    pro teaching of evolution
    Scopes Monkey Trial
    John Scopes, a high school biology teacher, was charged for teaching evolution
    Henry Ford
    creator of the assembly line and standardization; invented the Model T, a cheap, rugged, reasonably but noisy car; sold 20 million cars by 1930
    Ransom E Olds
    famous inventor alongside Ford, helped develop infant automotive industry; creator of Oldsmobile
    Orville Wright
    took off at Kitty Hawk in 1903, remained airborne for 12 seconds and flew 120 feet
    KDKA Pittsburgh Nov 1920
    1st radio station, broadcasted results of 1920 election
    Great Train Robbery 1903
    1st movie
    Birth of a Nation
    silent film by DW Griffith, defamed blacks (used blackface)
    DW Griffith
    groundbreaking American film director, directed The Birth of a Nation
    The Jazz Singer 1927
    1st “talkie”
    Margaret Sanger
    advocated for/coined term “birth control”; founded American Birth Control League, served as president International Planned Parenthood Association from 1952-1959; smuggled in contraceptives from Europe for women
    new style and actions characteristic of a generation of young women, wore short bobbed hair, drank and smoke freely, drove cars, wore lots of makeup, engaged in casual flirtation
    Jelly Roll Morton
    Creole pianist, composer, songwriter, and hustler from New Orleans; “First Jazz Composer.; recorded with the “Red Hot Peppers” in the mid 1920’s; bridged that gap between the piano styles of ragtime and jazz
    Joseph King Oliver
    jazz cornet player and bandleader, began the use of “mute” notes (used plungers, cups, bottles) and was teacher of Louis Armstrong
    Louis Armstrong
    horn and cornet player from New Orleans; key figure of Jazz Movement, during Harlem Renaissance
    George Gershwin
    versatile pianist from Brooklyn; played range of styles including concert, broadway, pop, jazz; famous Broadway composer
    Bessie Smith
    an influential jazz vocalist; nicknamed “Empress of Jazz”; along w/ Louis Armstrong, she was a key influence on later jazz vocalists
    Harlem Renaissance
    black intellectual movement of 1920’s; origins and endings are disputable; Langston Hughes was a key figure
    Langston Hughes
    black writer, namely a poet, novelist, columnist; famous for work w/ Harlem Renaissance, and once commented that “Harlem was in vogue”
    Marcus Garvey
    west Indian messianic leader of Harlem; founded UNIA and Black Star Line Steamship Company; convicted of fraud and imprisoned in 1929
    United Negro Improvement Association
    founded by Marcus Garvey to promote settlement of American blacks in Africa
    Black Star Line Steamship Company
    established by Marcus Garvey to transport American blacks to Africa, went bankrupt in 1923
    F Scott Fitzgerald
    author of the Great Gatsby 1925
    Ernest Hemingway
    author of Sun Also Rises (1926), and Farewell to Arms (1929)
    Theodore Dreiser
    author of An American Tragedy 1925
    An American Tragedy
    written by Theodore Dreiser; dealt with the murder of a young pregnant working girl by her socially ambitious lover
    TS Eliot
    poet, wrote “Waste Land” 1922
    Waste Land 1922
    written by TS Eliot
    Robert Frost
    poet, Nothing Gold Can Stay 1923
    Frank Lloyd Wright
    architect of Prairie Houses and Falling Water
    Empire State Building
    102 story building in NYC, was tallest building for 30 years; built 1930
    Bureau of the Budget 1921
    primary task is to prepare annual budget for presentation every January; also controls the administration of the budget, improving it and encouraging government efficiency
    Andrew Mellon
    American financier, appointed Sec of Treasury by Harding in 1921, served under Coolidge and Hoover; he reduced the WWI by $9 billion and Congress cut income tax rates substantially; is often the greatest sec of treasury, after Hamilton
    Bruce Barton
    advertising executive, wrote “The Man Nobody Knows” in 1925; called Jesus and the founder of modern business b/c he picked men up from the bottom ranks and built successful empire
    Madison Avenue
    north-south avenue in borough of Manhattan; location of advertising industry
    Babe Ruth
    American MLB player; played for Red Sox as pitcher, but sold to Yankees in 1919; converted to right fielder and one of the league’s most prolific hitters
    Jack Dempsey
    heavyweight champion who knocked out French heavyweight Georges Carpentier
    buying on credit
    people bought items using this method, and would then pay later; many went into debt
    Sheppard Towner Act 1921
    act that provided federal funding for maternity and child care
    Samuel Gompers
    founder of AFL, worked w/ government during WWI to avoid strikes and boost morale
    Buck vs Bell 1927
    upheld statute instituting compulsory steriliziation of the unfit including the mentally challenged
    Red Scare
    (HT) , Most instense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20’s. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis. “Those anarchists bastards”. Sentenced to death and executed.
    Immigration Act 1924
    set immigration quotas of 2 percent of the number of foreign-born persons from a given nation, based on the Census of 1890; drastically cut immigration from south and east Europe, as well as Asia
    city where mob activity was prominent, Al Capone had gang here
    Darwinian evolution
    general theory of evolution (see also “macro-evolution”) named after Charles Darwin, the British naturalist who expounded this theory in 185
    John Scopes
    high school biology teacher in Tennessee who was arrested for teaching evolution; this trial represented the Fundamentalist vs the Modernist; trial placed a negative image on fundamentalists, and it showed a changing America
    William Jennings Bryan
    United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver; prosecuted John Scopes for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school
    Clarence Darrow
    famed criminal defense lawyer for Scopes, who supported evolution; he caused William Jennings Bryan to appear foolish when Darrow questioned Bryan about the Bible
    recession of 1920-21
    Europe back to normal, US prices down, demand for goods down, price down, unemployment up to 12%
    Model T
    first affordable car built by Henry Ford; sturdy, reliable, inexpensive, only came in black
    location of car industry
    assembly line production
    system of workers and machinery in which a product is assembled in a series of consecutive operations; typically the product is attached to a continuously moving belt; perfected by Henry Ford and Ransom E Olds
    Spirit of St Louis
    nickname for Charles Lindbergh
    Thomas Edison
    American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures
    peep show
    Thomas Edison created the kinetoscope, a precursor to the motion picture viewer; featured short films could be viewed by looking through a view finder on a machine the size of a piano
    The Man Nobody Knows
    published in 1925 by Bruce Fairchild Barton. Barton presents Jesus as “the founder of modern business,” in an effort to make the Christian story accessible to businessmen of the time; one of the best selling non-fiction books of the 20th century; the book was controversial because it depicted Jesus as being “the world’s greatest business executive”, the opposite description usually given
    written by Sinclair Lewis in 1922
    Sinclair Lewis
    American novelist who satirized middle-class America in his 22 works, including Babbitt (1922) and Elmer Gantry (1927). He was the first American to receive (1930) a Nobel Prize for literature
    WC Handy
    this was a Memphis bandleader who added blues to ragtime and influenced popular music. He is often described as “The Father of the Blues.”
    Eugene O’Neill
    his play ‘Strange Interlude’ debuted on Broadway in 1928
    The Waste Land
    written by TS Eliot in 1922
    Winesburg, Ohio
    written by Sherwood Anderson dissecting various fictional personalities finding them all in some way warped by their cramped psychological surroundings
    Sherwood Anderson
    author of Winesburg, Ohio
    Benny Goodman
    twentieth-century American jazz clarinetist and bandleader; was known as the “King of Swing”
    Duke Ellington
    born in Chicago middle class. moved to Harlem in 1923 and began playing at the cotton club’ composer, pianist and bandleader; most influential figures in jazz
    Adelaide Hall
    this singer was introduced in Lew Leslie’s “Blackbirds of 1928”
    Paul Robeson
    African American concert singer whose passport was revoked; was blacklisted from the stage, screen, radio and television under the McCarran Act of the red scare of the 1950s due to his public criticism of American racist tendencie
    Cab Calloway
    a talented drummer, saxophonist, and singer, formed another important jazz orchestra, which played at Harlem’s Savoy Ballroom and the Cotton Club, alternating with Duke Ellington; made “scatting” famous
    Zora Neale Hurston
    African American writer and folklore scholar who played a key role in the Harlem Renaissance; sang “Their Eyes Were Watching God”

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