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    AP Euro Renaissance (Ch.12)

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    Jacob Burckhardt
    – 19th century historian who believed that the Italian Renaissance marked the beginning of the modern world
    – wrote “The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy” (1860)
    Hanseatic League
    – union of 80+ cities in Northern Germany, England, and Scandinavia
    – traded timber, fish, grain, metals, honey, and wine
    – port city of Bruges (in Flanders, located in modern-day Belgium)
    Italian City States
    – Five Major Powers: Duchy of Milan, Venice / Venetian Republic, Republic of Florence, the Papal States, and the Kingdom of Naples
    – established trade routes with northern parts of Europe (England and the Netherlands)
    – economic conflict with Ottoman Turks
    – Venice and Florence used strategic locations on the Med. to control Euro trade w/ Mid. East and Asia
    – Florence, Rome, Naples, Milan – manufacturing and market centers
    House of Medici
    – one of the most powerful banking families in Italy / Renaissance Europe
    – Florentine roots
    – ruled the Grand Duchy of Tuscany into the 18th century
    – two popes, many cardinals, and two queens of France belong to the family
    Giovanni de’Medici
    – d. 1429
    – founder of Medici dynasty in Florence
    – lent money for interest
    – ruler of Florence between 1421 – 1429
    Cosimo de’Medici
    – 1389 – 1464
    -son of Giovanni de’Medici
    -patron of the arts, such as Donatello
    – “father of his country”
    Federigo de Montefeltro
    – ruled Urbino from 1444 – 1482
    – was honest and reliable
    – Urbino became a cultural center
    Isabella d’Este
    – 1474 – 1539
    – wife of Francesco II Gonzaga, marquis of Mantua
    – “first lady of the world”
    – intelligent and educated woman
    – versed in Renaissance culture
    – was a clever negotiator
    – excellent letter writer
    – under her oversight, Mantua became home to a fine library and transformed into a cultural center
    Baldassare Castiglione
    – 1478 – 1528
    – Milan and Urbino
    – an Italian courtier and influential author who wrote “The Book of the Courtier”
    “The Book of the Courtier”
    -an aristocratic “handbook” by Baldasarre Castiglione that describes how a courtier should act, how he should live, and how he should better himself (ex: education)
    Niccolò Machiavelli
    – 1469 – 1527
    – Florence
    – “The Prince”, his application for employment with Lorenzo d’Medici, became the most important work on political science for centuries
    – advocated for “it is safer to be feared than loved” and “the end justifies the means”
    “The Prince”
    – book written by Machiavelli that details how a ruler should act and how they should hold on to power
    – an intellectual movement based on the study of the classical literary works of the Greeks and the Romans
    – a doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations.
    – the rise of value for involvement in the world
    – stressed the moral worth of each person
    – contributed partially to the rise of the “Renaissance Man”
    L'uomo Universale
    L’uomo Universale
    – Italian for a “universal man”
    – someone who excels in many different fields
    – “Renaissance Man”
    – ex: Leonardo da Vinci was great at painting, drawing, geometry, architecture, engineering, botany, and anatomy
    – 1304 – 1374
    – Italian
    – First great humanist thinker and a scholar of Latin
    – Famous for writing “Triumphs”, “On the Solitary Life” and various letters to Cicero
    – characterized Middle Ages as “dark”
    – Ascent of Mont Ventoux
    – “Father of Humanism”
    Leonardo Bruni
    – 1369 – 1444
    – Italian humanist
    – “History of the Florentine People” ~ stressed the need for authentic sources in examining history
    – “The New Cicero”
    “The New Cicero”
    – a biography of the Roman the philosopher Cicero
    – written by Leonardo Bruni
    “Oration on the Dignity of Man”
    – work by Pico della Mirandola that supports the idea of man having a special place on the Great Chain of Being
    -belief in unlimited human potential
    Peace of Lodi & balance of power
    – 1454
    – an agreement between the Italian states that ended a half-century of war and created peace
    – it created a balance of power in Italy by making an alliance system (Milan, Florence, and Naples VS. Venice and the Papal States)
    – 1410 – 1425
    – Florence Painter
    – “Father of Modern Art”
    – “Expulsion” and “Holy Trinity” show change from Medieval to Renaissance painting due to the use of anatomy and perspective
    Johannes Gutenberg
    – 1398 – 1468
    – German
    – credited as the first to produce books with moveable lead type ~ 1450 (printing press)
    – “Gutenberg Bible”
    Moveable Type
    – the system of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation)
    – moveable lead type was invented by Johannes Gutenberg around 1450
    Lorenzo the Magnificent
    – 1449 – 1492
    – Florence
    – Cosimo d’Medici’s grandson
    – lavish patron of the arts
    -support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another
    -in the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings or popes have provided to musicians, painters, and sculptors
    Sandro Botticelli
    – 1444 – 1510
    – Venice painter
    – “The Birth of Venus”
    – assisted with decorating the Sistine Chapel
    – 1386 – 1466
    – Florence Sculptor
    – His broze “David” was the first freestanding bronze statue of a human created in Europe since antiquity (time period before the Middle Ages)
    – 1377 – 1446
    – Florence Architect
    – Created “II Duomo” (built the first Italian freestanding dome since antiquity at the Florence Cathedral / Basilica of Saint Mary of the Flower)
    Leonardo da Vinci
    – 1452 – 1519
    – Florence
    – Painter,sculptor, architect, engineer, and scientist
    – Greatest works: “The Last Supper” ( 1495 – 1498) and the “Mona Lisa” (1503 – 1506)
    – designed flying machines and tanks
    – rival of Michelangelo
    – patron was Leonardo the Magnificent and Lodovico Sforza
    – Vitruvian Man (1487)
    – 1483 – 1520
    – Urbino, Italy
    – Painter
    – chief architect of St.Peter’s Basilica in Rome
    – “The School of Athens”
    – madonnas
    Trinity of 15th Century Artists
    -Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael
    -1474 – 1564
    – painter, sculptor, architect, poet
    – Painted ceiling of Sistine Chapel for Pope Julius II
    – the “Pieta”, “David”, and “Moses”
    – a historical geographical region located in parts of present-day Belgium, France and the Netherlands
    – associated with Northern Renaissance
    Jan van Eyck
    -1390 – 1441
    – Dutch painter of 15th century
    – symbolic oil paintings w/ meticulous detail that focused on religious or secular themes
    – best known for the “Ghent Altarpiece” and “The Arnolfini Wedding”
    Albrecht Dürer
    – 1471 – 1528
    – self-portraits and woodblock prints (“The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse”)
    – “Adoration of the Magi”
    – “Christ Amongst the Doctors”
    “New Monarchies”
    – term used to refer to states where the royal families were able to extend their political power in te second half of the 15th century (France, England , Spain)
    – retained feudal income while also taxing towns, merchants, peasants
    – created professional armies that were paid from the royal treasury
    – created a more centralized administrative bureaucracy that relied upon educated and loyal middle-class officials
    – negotiated a new relationship with the Catholic Church
    Louis XI
    – reigned 1461 – 1483
    – “the spider” b/c of devious ways
    – made the taille a permanent tax
    – conflict w/ Charles the Bold over land; Charles had tried to create a new kingdom between France and Germany; Charles died and Louis took the land
    – enlarged the royal army
    – encouraged new industries such as silk weaving
    – impact of reign: strong French monarchy
    War of Roses
    – Civil war in England in the 1450s between the House of Lancaster (symbolized by the red rose) and the House of York (symbolized by the white rose)
    – Henry Tudor won the way by defeating the Yorks in 1485
    Henry VII and the Tudors
    – won the War of Roses
    – created the Court of Star Chamber (controlled nobles w/o juries and used torture)
    – avoided overtaking his people and not asking for gov’t funds by not engaging in wars
    – used diplomacy
    Ferdinand and Isabella
    – Ferdinand of Aragon (reigned 1479 – 1516) and Isabella of Castile (reigned 1474 – 1504) married in (1469 and united the Iberian peninsula’s two most powerful royal houses
    – reduced number of nobles on the royal council, replaced with lawyers trained in Roman law
    – established a strong infantry force
    – gained right to appoint Spanish church officials
    Spanish Inquisition
    – policy that persecuted heresy and insincere orthodoxy of Christians
    – expelled all Jews from Spain in 1492
    – expelled all Muslims from Spain in 1502
    – Christian struggle to take the Iberian Peninsula from Muslim control
    – Completed in early 1490s by Ferdinand and Isabella by conquering Granada and incorporating it into the Spanish kingdom
    Holy Roman Empire
    – over 300 small principalities, duchies, and ind. cities
    – The Hapsburgs
    – Maximilian I
    – Charles V
    The Hapsburgs
    – origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740
    Ivan III
    – reigned 1462 – 1505
    – created the Russian state and annexed territories from the Mongols by 1480
    – principality of Moscow
    Fall of Constantinople (1453)
    – spread of Muslim influence into Eastern Europe / the Balkan States
    -marked the end of the Roman Empire
    Jan Hus
    – 1374 – 1415
    – chancellor of the University of Prague
    – called for end to worldliness and clergy corruption
    – disliked Papal power
    – message resonated w/ clergy, czech people, and anti-German sentiment
    – executed by the Council of Constance in 1415
    – “The Hussites”
    John Wycliffe
    – 1328 – 1384
    – Oxford theologen who did not agree w/ practices of Catholic church such as temporal authority, pilgrimages, veneration of the saints
    – believed Bible was sole authority of Christianity
    – wanted vernacular Bibles
    – followers became known as Lollards
    Pope Julius II
    – reigned 1503 – 1513
    – Italian
    – decided to rebuild St.Peter’s Basilica
    – patronized Raphael and Michelangelo
    – “war pope”
    Pope Leo
    – reigned 1513 – 1521
    – second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent
    – opulent pope
    – didn’t realize importance of Reformation
    – issued the bull excommunicating Luther

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