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AP Euro Renaissance (Ch.12)

Jacob Burckhardt
– 19th century historian who believed that the Italian Renaissance marked the beginning of the modern world
– wrote “The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy” (1860)
Hanseatic League
– union of 80+ cities in Northern Germany, England, and Scandinavia
– traded timber, fish, grain, metals, honey, and wine
– port city of Bruges (in Flanders, located in modern-day Belgium)
Italian City States
– Five Major Powers: Duchy of Milan, Venice / Venetian Republic, Republic of Florence, the Papal States, and the Kingdom of Naples
– established trade routes with northern parts of Europe (England and the Netherlands)
– economic conflict with Ottoman Turks
– Venice and Florence used strategic locations on the Med. to control Euro trade w/ Mid. East and Asia
– Florence, Rome, Naples, Milan – manufacturing and market centers

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House of Medici
– one of the most powerful banking families in Italy / Renaissance Europe
– Florentine roots
– ruled the Grand Duchy of Tuscany into the 18th century
– two popes, many cardinals, and two queens of France belong to the family
Giovanni de’Medici
– d. 1429
– founder of Medici dynasty in Florence
– lent money for interest
– ruler of Florence between 1421 – 1429
Cosimo de’Medici
– 1389 – 1464
-Florence
-son of Giovanni de’Medici
-banker
-patron of the arts, such as Donatello
– “father of his country”
Federigo de Montefeltro
– ruled Urbino from 1444 – 1482
– was honest and reliable
– Urbino became a cultural center
Isabella d’Este
– 1474 – 1539
– wife of Francesco II Gonzaga, marquis of Mantua
– “first lady of the world”
– intelligent and educated woman
– versed in Renaissance culture
– was a clever negotiator
– excellent letter writer
– under her oversight, Mantua became home to a fine library and transformed into a cultural center
Baldassare Castiglione
– 1478 – 1528
– Milan and Urbino
– an Italian courtier and influential author who wrote “The Book of the Courtier”
“The Book of the Courtier”
-an aristocratic “handbook” by Baldasarre Castiglione that describes how a courtier should act, how he should live, and how he should better himself (ex: education)
Niccolò Machiavelli
– 1469 – 1527
– Florence
– “The Prince”, his application for employment with Lorenzo d’Medici, became the most important work on political science for centuries
– advocated for “it is safer to be feared than loved” and “the end justifies the means”
“The Prince”
– book written by Machiavelli that details how a ruler should act and how they should hold on to power
Humanism
– an intellectual movement based on the study of the classical literary works of the Greeks and the Romans
Secularism
– a doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations.
Individualism
– the rise of value for involvement in the world
– stressed the moral worth of each person
– contributed partially to the rise of the “Renaissance Man”
L'uomo Universale
L’uomo Universale
– Italian for a “universal man”
– someone who excels in many different fields
– “Renaissance Man”
– ex: Leonardo da Vinci was great at painting, drawing, geometry, architecture, engineering, botany, and anatomy
Petrarch
– 1304 – 1374
– Italian
– First great humanist thinker and a scholar of Latin
– Famous for writing “Triumphs”, “On the Solitary Life” and various letters to Cicero
– characterized Middle Ages as “dark”
– Ascent of Mont Ventoux
– “Father of Humanism”
Leonardo Bruni
– 1369 – 1444
– Italian humanist
– “History of the Florentine People” ~ stressed the need for authentic sources in examining history
– “The New Cicero”
“The New Cicero”
– a biography of the Roman the philosopher Cicero
– written by Leonardo Bruni
“Oration on the Dignity of Man”
– work by Pico della Mirandola that supports the idea of man having a special place on the Great Chain of Being
-belief in unlimited human potential
Peace of Lodi & balance of power
– 1454
– an agreement between the Italian states that ended a half-century of war and created peace
– it created a balance of power in Italy by making an alliance system (Milan, Florence, and Naples VS. Venice and the Papal States)
Masaccio
– 1410 – 1425
– Florence Painter
– “Father of Modern Art”
– “Expulsion” and “Holy Trinity” show change from Medieval to Renaissance painting due to the use of anatomy and perspective
Johannes Gutenberg
– 1398 – 1468
– German
– credited as the first to produce books with moveable lead type ~ 1450 (printing press)
– “Gutenberg Bible”
Moveable Type
– the system of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation)
– moveable lead type was invented by Johannes Gutenberg around 1450
Lorenzo the Magnificent
– 1449 – 1492
– Florence
– Cosimo d’Medici’s grandson
– lavish patron of the arts
Patronage
-support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another
-in the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings or popes have provided to musicians, painters, and sculptors
Sandro Botticelli
– 1444 – 1510
– Venice painter
– “The Birth of Venus”
– assisted with decorating the Sistine Chapel
Donatelo
– 1386 – 1466
– Florence Sculptor
– His broze “David” was the first freestanding bronze statue of a human created in Europe since antiquity (time period before the Middle Ages)
Brunelleschi
– 1377 – 1446
– Florence Architect
– Created “II Duomo” (built the first Italian freestanding dome since antiquity at the Florence Cathedral / Basilica of Saint Mary of the Flower)
Leonardo da Vinci
– 1452 – 1519
– Florence
– Painter,sculptor, architect, engineer, and scientist
– Greatest works: “The Last Supper” ( 1495 – 1498) and the “Mona Lisa” (1503 – 1506)
– designed flying machines and tanks
– rival of Michelangelo
– patron was Leonardo the Magnificent and Lodovico Sforza
– Vitruvian Man (1487)
Raphael
– 1483 – 1520
– Urbino, Italy
– Painter
– chief architect of St.Peter’s Basilica in Rome
– “The School of Athens”
– madonnas
Trinity of 15th Century Artists
-Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael
Michelangelo
-1474 – 1564
– painter, sculptor, architect, poet
– Painted ceiling of Sistine Chapel for Pope Julius II
– the “Pieta”, “David”, and “Moses”
Flanders
– a historical geographical region located in parts of present-day Belgium, France and the Netherlands
– associated with Northern Renaissance
Jan van Eyck
-1390 – 1441
– Dutch painter of 15th century
– symbolic oil paintings w/ meticulous detail that focused on religious or secular themes
– best known for the “Ghent Altarpiece” and “The Arnolfini Wedding”
Albrecht Dürer
– 1471 – 1528
– self-portraits and woodblock prints (“The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse”)
– “Adoration of the Magi”
– “Christ Amongst the Doctors”
“New Monarchies”
– term used to refer to states where the royal families were able to extend their political power in te second half of the 15th century (France, England , Spain)
– retained feudal income while also taxing towns, merchants, peasants
– created professional armies that were paid from the royal treasury
– created a more centralized administrative bureaucracy that relied upon educated and loyal middle-class officials
– negotiated a new relationship with the Catholic Church
Louis XI
– reigned 1461 – 1483
– “the spider” b/c of devious ways
– made the taille a permanent tax
– conflict w/ Charles the Bold over land; Charles had tried to create a new kingdom between France and Germany; Charles died and Louis took the land
– enlarged the royal army
– encouraged new industries such as silk weaving
– impact of reign: strong French monarchy
War of Roses
– Civil war in England in the 1450s between the House of Lancaster (symbolized by the red rose) and the House of York (symbolized by the white rose)
– Henry Tudor won the way by defeating the Yorks in 1485
Henry VII and the Tudors
– won the War of Roses
– created the Court of Star Chamber (controlled nobles w/o juries and used torture)
– avoided overtaking his people and not asking for gov’t funds by not engaging in wars
– used diplomacy
Ferdinand and Isabella
– Ferdinand of Aragon (reigned 1479 – 1516) and Isabella of Castile (reigned 1474 – 1504) married in (1469 and united the Iberian peninsula’s two most powerful royal houses
– reduced number of nobles on the royal council, replaced with lawyers trained in Roman law
– established a strong infantry force
– gained right to appoint Spanish church officials
Spanish Inquisition
– policy that persecuted heresy and insincere orthodoxy of Christians
– expelled all Jews from Spain in 1492
– expelled all Muslims from Spain in 1502
Reconquista
– Christian struggle to take the Iberian Peninsula from Muslim control
– Completed in early 1490s by Ferdinand and Isabella by conquering Granada and incorporating it into the Spanish kingdom
Holy Roman Empire
– over 300 small principalities, duchies, and ind. cities
– The Hapsburgs
– Maximilian I
– Charles V
The Hapsburgs
– origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740
Ivan III
– reigned 1462 – 1505
– created the Russian state and annexed territories from the Mongols by 1480
– principality of Moscow
Fall of Constantinople (1453)
– spread of Muslim influence into Eastern Europe / the Balkan States
-marked the end of the Roman Empire
Jan Hus
– 1374 – 1415
– chancellor of the University of Prague
– called for end to worldliness and clergy corruption
– disliked Papal power
– message resonated w/ clergy, czech people, and anti-German sentiment
– executed by the Council of Constance in 1415
– “The Hussites”
John Wycliffe
– 1328 – 1384
– Oxford theologen who did not agree w/ practices of Catholic church such as temporal authority, pilgrimages, veneration of the saints
– believed Bible was sole authority of Christianity
– wanted vernacular Bibles
– followers became known as Lollards
Pope Julius II
– reigned 1503 – 1513
– Italian
– decided to rebuild St.Peter’s Basilica
– patronized Raphael and Michelangelo
– “war pope”
Pope Leo
– reigned 1513 – 1521
– second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent
– opulent pope
– didn’t realize importance of Reformation
– issued the bull excommunicating Luther

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AP Euro Renaissance (Ch.12)
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Jacob Burckhardt - 19th century historian who believed that the Italian Renaissance marked the beginning of the modern world - wrote "The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy" (1860) Hanseatic League
2017-09-06 05:32:48
AP Euro Renaissance (Ch.12)
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