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    Amsco APUSH Chapter 23

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    Warren Harding
    29th president of the US; Republican; “Return to Normalcy” (life as it had been before WWI-peace, isolation); presidency was marred by scandal (Teapot Dome; bribes / getting $ to not charge certain people of their crimes)Died + then Coolidge took over. Said to be one of the worst presidents in US history
    Charles Evans Hughs
    secretary of state, Washington Naval Conference , urged that no more warships be built for 10 years, suggested that United States, Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy scrap many of their battleships, cruisers, and aircraft carriers.
    Andrew Mellon
    An American financier, he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury by President Harding in 1921 and served under Coolidge and Hoover. While he was in office, the government reduced the WW I debt by $9 billion and Congress cut income tax rates substantially. He is often called the greatest Secretary of the Treasury after Hamilton.
    Harry Daugherty
    Attorney General under Harding who sold illegal liquor licenses and pardons under Harding. He accepted bribes, involved in scandals, and a member of the Ohio Gang (Teapot Dome)
    Albert Fall
    He was Secretery of the Interior during Harding’s administration, and was a scheming anticonservationist. He was convicted of leasing naval oil reserves and collecting bribes, which was called the Tea Pot Dome scandal.
    Teapot Dome
    Fall accepted bribes for granting oil leases near Teapot Dome, Wyoming
    Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act
    raised tariff rates to protect post WWI America
    Bureau of the Budget
    Established under Harding’s Presidency, national budget had to be approved by Congress
    Calvin Coolidge
    30th President, believed in limited govt. + free market. Kept close watch on budget, vetoed Repub. majority act, Did not allow bonuses for WWI vets. Vetoed McNary-Haugen Bill (would have helped farmers as crop prices fell)
    “The business of America is business”
    Herbert Hoover
    31st President , ran on campaign saying poverty would soon be ended, Stock Market crash, prohibition (18th Amendment)
    Alfred E. Smith
    Former governor of New York who ran for President against Herbert Hoover. He was against Prohibition. (1928 Election)
    business prosperity
    -increased productivity in factories (Henry Ford + the assembly line)
    -energy technologies ( oil 23% of US energy, electric motors)
    -govt. policy = favored big business (tax cuts + rarely enforcing anti-trust laws) large tax cuts = imbalance in incomes + increased speculation in markets. Federal Reserve = low interest rates + relaxed regulation of banks + then tightened $ supply @ the wrong time
    standard of living
    some were rich some were poor ???????????????
    scientific management
    Frederick W. Taylor’s method of managing factories through the use of timing each step of assembling the product, and ordering it in a systematic and orderly way to take as little time as possible
    Henry Ford
    used the assembly line to increase productivity in his factories
    assembly line
    stimulated business prosperity by increasing productivity. Henry Ford used this method in his factories
    open shop
    A company with a labor agreement under which union membership cannot be required as a condition of employment.
    welfare capitalism
    An economic and political system that combines a mostly market-based economy with extensive social welfare programs
    a movement advocating greater protection of the interests of consumers
    electric appliances
    consumerism; refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, washing machines,
    impact of the automobile
    many industries depended on its sales (oil, rubber)
    some thought that it directly contributed to the breakdown of youth’s morals
    jazz age
    1920s: black jazz became popular during this time and led to a free American spirit
    radio, phonographs
    broadcast music for all to hear, didn’t need to be live
    national networks
    NBC (National Broadcasting Company) + CBS (Colombia Broadcasting System)
    LA , California : film industry + celebrities became a thing in this place.
    movie stars
    Greta Garbo + Rudolf Valentino. People began looking towards actors and celebrities as “heros” opposed to people looking towards military heros + presidents + politicians
    movie palaces
    these began getting built + showed talking picture shows
    popular heros
    shift from political heros to sports heros + movie stars
    role of women
    @ Home = homemakers + mothers , intro of washing machine + vacuum cleaner

    In the labor force
    – clerks, nurses, teachers, + domestics, lower wages then men

    Sigmund Freud
    sexual repression => mental illness
    famous in psychology field
    morals and fashions
    moral revolution.
    -premarital sex = invention of the modern age.
    -dances, movies, + books encouraged promiscuity
    Margaret Sanger
    advocate for birth control
    high school education
    universal high school education
    by the end of 1920’s # of high school grads doubled to 25%
    Frederick Lewis Allen
    Journalist who wrote “Only Yesterday” breath taking change from 1919 to 1920 overnight. Book had Mr. and Mrs. Smith who emulated typical 20’s family and how progressed: can foods, radio, bob hair cuts, smoking , clubs, etc.
    Only Yesterday
    Written by Frederick Lewis Allen, showed change from 1919 -> the 20’s through a typical family of the time
    Gertrude Stein
    Coined the term the “Lost Generation” during a conversation with Hemingway. “All of you young people who served in the war. You are a lost generation… You have no respect for anything. You drink yourselves to death.” Stein was good friends with many of the great writers + painters of the lost generation
    Lost Generation
    Writers + Painters who commonly flocked to Paris in the 1920’s . Scorned religion + the sacrifices made in war. Were often characterized by their disgust in the materialistic glamour of the time + were more interested in existential, and somewhat cynical views with their expressed disillusionment w/ the ideals of an earlier time + w/ the materialism of a business culture. Many succumbed to alcoholism in a way to escape their harsh disattachment from the society of the time
    F. Scott Fitzgerald
    wife Zelda, famous for his work on The Great Gatsby, part of the Lost Generation, became good friends with Hemingway but ultimately ended the friendship in a spat , alcoholic
    Ernest Hemingway
    the most recognized writer of the Lost Generation , moved to Europe to express his distaste in America, “mans man” , wrote Farewell to Arms where he expressed the horrible sacrifices of war + his distaste for it (ruined everything + everyone) Cynical, boxer , writer
    Sinclair Lewis
    United States novelist who satirized middle-class America in his novel Main Street (1885-1951)
    Lost Generation
    Ezra Pound
    Poet of the Lost Generation
    chief prophet of modernism in Long, deeply concerned with creating new and often difficult styles of modernist expression. As a foreign editor of Poetry, Pound became the conduit through which many American poets achieved publication
    T.S. Eliot
    Poet of the Lost Generation
    portrayed a world of growing desolation but eventually hoped cautiously for humanity’s salvation
    Eugene O’Neill
    Lost Generation
    plays which expressed disillusionment with the ideals of an earlier time + with the materialism of a business-oriented culture. Alcoholic
    industrial design
    Art Deco -> Chrysler building + Empire State building
    Art Deco
    Art style of the 1920s and 1930s based on modern materials and repetitive geometric patterns. Chrysler building + Empire State building
    Edward Hopper
    painter , painted scenes of loneliness + isolation of urban life. i.e. his painting Nighthawks + Night on the El Train
    regional artists
    Grant Wood + Thomas Hart Benton (painters) who celebrated the rural people + scenes of the heartland of America
    Grant Wood
    regional artist who celebrated the rural people + scenes of the heartland of America
    George Gershwin
    classical composer who mixed it w/ Jazz. Rhapsody in Blue
    northern migration
    African Americans migrated to North from the South
    Harlem Renaissance
    African Americans developed Harlem in NYC
    lots of talented actors, artists, musicians, + writers came out of Harlem
    Countee Cullen
    American romantic poet closely associated with the Harlem Renaissance.
    Langston Hughes
    African American poet who described the rich culture of african American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. He wrote of African American hope and defiance, as well as the culture of Harlem and also had a major impact on the Harlem Renaissance.
    James Weldon Johnson
    NAACP leader and Harlem Renaissance writer; he wrote poetry and, with his brother, the song “Lift Every Voice and Sing.”
    Claude McKay
    A poet who was a major figure in the Harlem Renaissance movement and wrote the poem “If We Must Die” after the Chicago riot of 1919.
    Duke Ellington
    jazz musician associated with Harlem Renaissance
    Louis Armstrong
    jazz musicians associated with Harlem Renaissance, influenced future generations of musicians
    Bessie Smith
    blues singer , Harlem Renaissance
    Paul Robeson
    multi-talented singer + actor, Harlem Renaissance
    Back to Africa movement
    Marcus Garvey advocated for a “back to Africa” movement
    Marcus Garvey
    African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
    black pride
    Marcus Garvey inspired later generations to embrace the cause of black pride + nationalism
    historical + critical view of bible passage + believed they could accept Darwin’s theory of evolution w/o abandoning their faith
    taught every word of the bible as TRUE , doctrine = creationism (idea that God had created the universe in 7 days) explained all life
    revivalists : Billy Sunday, Aimee Semple McPherson
    radios preached fundamentalism, “Bill Sunday” attack drinking , gambling, + dancing. Aimee Semple McPherson condemned communism + jazz music
    Scopes trial
    Darwinian (influenced by jazz age and new scientific ideas) against Fundamentalist (the Bible and Creationism); John Scopes convicted for teaching Darwinism (defended by Clarence Darrow); Scopes found guilty
    Clarence Darrow
    A famed criminal defense lawyer for Scopes, who supported evolution. He caused William Jennings Bryan to appear foolish when Darrow questioned Bryan about the Bible.
    Volstead Act (1919)
    This law that established a Prohibition Bureau within the Treasury Department was under budgeted and largely ineffective, especially in strongly anti-prohibition states
    organized crime
    The work of a group that regulates relations among criminal enterprises involved in illegal activities, including prostitution, gambling, and the smuggling and sale of illegal drugs. Prohibition basically poured gasoline all over this caused it to become rampant in american cities
    Al Capone
    Chicago gang leader, fought for control of bootlegging trade. Organized crime increased, people made millions off sale of illegal booze + it allowed gangs to expand to prostitution, gambling + drugs
    21st Amendment
    people saw that prohibition = public resentment + increased criminal activity, w/ Great Depression, economic reason added to argument. This Amendment repealed the 18th Amendment (prohibition)
    quota laws of 1921 and 1924
    1921- limited immigration to 357,000 people
    1924- 2% of immigrants allowed into country (to limit Southern + Eastern Europeans)
    Sacco and Vanzetti Case
    these two Italian immigrants were convicted of robbery + murder. Liberals protested that they were innocent + had been accused just bc they were Italian immigrants + anarchists. Later executed in 1927
    Ku Klux Klan
    Terrorized + target anyone “un-American” , white hoods, burn crosses, whips, tar + feathered, lynching. Strong political influence @ times
    Birth of a Nation
    convinced people to join the KKK bc it portrayed KKK members during Reconstruction as HEROS
    blacks, Catholics and Jews, foreigners and communists
    The KKK hated these types of peoples
    Occurred to Germany after World War I; It was enforced to have very reduced numbers of tanks, aircraft etc. Definition- The reduction of the number of weapons that are under the use of a Nation
    Washington Conference (1921)
    Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes initiated talk on navel disarmament (stabilize size of US Navy to that of other powers + resolved conflicts in the Pacific)
    Belgium, China, France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, + Portugal in attendance
    Five-Power Naval treaty
    Largest Naval powers agreed to following ratio of ships, US:5 , Great Britain:5 , Japan:3 , France:1.67 , Italy:1.67 . US and Great Britain agreed NOT to fortify their possessions in Pacific, no limit for/ob Japanese
    Nine-Power Naval treaty
    All 9 nations present @ the Washington Conference agreed to respect the Open Door policy by guaranteeing the territorial integrity of China
    Kellogg-Briand Treaty (1928)
    This Treaty renounced the aggressive use of force to achieve national ends; almost all the nations of the world signed it. It proved ineffective because it 1) permitted defensive wars 2) failed to provide for taking action against the violators of the treaty. .
    Latin America policy
    US removed military influnce here, but by doing so our economic impact skyrocketed. US investments in Latin America doubled between 1919-1929
    war debts
    US wanted Great Britain + France to pay up the $10 billion they lent them, they didn’t want to + couldn’t bc of our high tariffs + bc they felt they suffered greater losses in the war. Treaty of Versailles required Germany to pay $30 billion to allies but they were bankrupt w/ tons of inflation + were near anarchy so they could not
    Payment for damages after a war
    Dawes Plan (1924)
    plan for US to get $ back from war debts
    US banks lend Germany $ -> Germany rebuild economy + pay back Great Britain + France -> Great Britain + France would use the $ to pay back the US
    Stock market crash messed up the whole thing!

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