Alexander III, more commonly known as Alexander The Great Essay, was one of the
greatest military leaders in world history. He was born in Pella, Macedonia,
then a Greek nation. The exact date of his birth is uncertain, but was probably
either July 20 or 26, 356 B.C. Alexander was considered a child from his birth
until 341 B.
C. His princehood lasted from 340 to 336 B.C. In 336 B.C. Philip II,
his father, was assassinated, thus making Alexander king.
Alexander became a
military leader in 335, and remained one until his death in 323 B.C. He reigned
from 336 B.C. until 323 B.C.
, when he died. His military campaign in Persia
lasted from 334 to 329, and in 328 he began his campaign in India and Bactria,
which lasted until 326. Alexander was only 20 years old when his father died in
early 336 B.C. and he took over, ruling for 12 years and eight months. Alexander
was fair skinned and fair haired.
He was not very tall, but had outstanding
speed and stamina. He was a dedicated soldier, but didnt care for sports. The
only sport he really liked was hunting. Alexander was the eldest son of Philip
II and Olympias. Like Alexander, Philip II was a great general. Olympias and
Philip, when Philip was not away on a campaign, constantly fought.
was away often, and so much of his childhood influences came from his mother,
although his father taught him many useful things about war. Because of his
mothers heritage, Alexander could truthfully claim relation to two Trojan War
heroes, Achilles and, indirectly, Hector. Philip II taught him he was descended
from Hercules, which was not true. The historian Callisthenes started an untrue
rumor that Alexander was the son of Zeus. Alexander had seven wives and a male
lover. In 327 B.
C. he married Roxanne, his main wife, so to speak. Roxanne was a
Persian, and by the time he married her, Alexander had total control of Persia
and was doing his campaigns in India and Bactria. Roxanne later became pregnant
with a child, but when Alexander died it had not yet been born.
*center*Alexanders Childhood When Alexander was either 13 or 14(different
sources gave different ages), Alexander became the pupil of the great
philosopher Aristotle. Aristotle taught Alexander grammar, literature,
especially Homer, politics, the natural sciences, and rhetoric(the art of using
words well and effectively).
Aristotle inspired Alexander with a love for
literature. He came to know and like the Greek styles of living. Greeces
ideals of civilization impressed him, and took part in sports and daily
exercises to develop a strong body. Alexander had another teacher, Leonidas,
whom was hired by Philip II to train and discipline Alexanders body. Leonidas
sent Alexander on frequent all night marches and rationed his food.
Alexanders schooling with his two teachers continued until he was 16 years
When Alexander was 16, his father went away to a military campaign. He left
Alexander temporarily in charge of his kingdom. While Philip II was away, the
people of Thrace started a rebellion. Alexander found out about this rebellion,
and crushed it. This rather impressed Philip II, and he let Alexander settle his
first town, Alexandropolis. This city, as is probably quite self-evident, was
named for Alexander.
In Greek, polis means city, so this means
Alexander city. At this age, Alexander also had an interest in medicine.
He even prescribed medicine to some of his friends. The Story of Bucephales When
Alexander was either 11 or 12 or 14(there are differing accounts), he went with
his father and his fathers company while they went to buy a horse. After a
while, Philip saw a horse that he wanted. He soon saw that it was very mean and
wild, so he decided against buying it.
When Alexander learned of this decision,
he said to his father,"What a horse they are losing, and all because they
do not know how to handle it, or dare not try." To this Philip II
responded,"Are you finding fault with your elders because you think you
know more than they do, or can manage a horse better?" "At least I can
manage this one better,"Alexander replied. Alexander then decided to show
the company he could calm this horse. He approached the horse and calmed it.
Once the horse seemed to be calm enough, Alexander mounted it and galloped
around the field. The company applauds, and Philip II weeps for joy.
Alexander dismounted, Philip II kissed him. He told his son,"My .