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    This paper looks at the Sarbanes Oxley Act and how will it halt another corporation from neglecting. In the thick of the failures such as Enron, WorldCom, and HIH merely to call a few, there has been a batch of talk and figure indicating on what went incorrect? Is the Sarbanes Oxley Act the solution to these of all time raising jobs?

    This paper provides an overview of the SOX, which has been the most far-reaching set of legislative regulations enforced since the SEC Act in the USA. The SOX has had its just trade of benefit and jobs. This paper merely examines the issue of the can SOX forestall or understate corporate failures. I will briefly touch on the demands and the cost and benefit of the SOX.

    The scrutinizing profession including the criterion compositors and the legislators has had a wakeup call after the prostrations of some of the most noteworthy corporate failures such as Enron and WorldCom in the US, and HIH Insurance in Australia merely to call a few. In instance of the local economic system, the government-owned National Bank of Fiji ( NBF ) about collapsed in the mid-1990s, which was mostly due to hapless supervising and hapless corporate administration but besides due undetected fraud. The list continues but what comes to mind is who is to be blamed for these failures. Is it the Auditing and Accounting Profession, the authorities, the Stock Markets, the Investors, the Management or we the general populace?


    The recent economic milieus in which concerns operate have changed significantly in the past decennary[ 1 ]. These alterations have been caused partially by promotions in information and production engineerings, globalisation of production, selling and non burying the corporate failures that have plagued these economic systems. A “ new economic system ” now exists that is service oriented and information driven.[ 2 ]

    The audit houses have a longstanding tradition of continuously introducing the audit attack so that efficient and effectual audits are possible in an ever-changing concern environment. In the late 1990s the fiscal hazard analysis was modified to give greater consideration to new methods of scrutinizing such as the strategic or concern hazards confronting the client ‘s organisation. The call was even strengthen and extremely recommended after the recent corporate dirts and audit failures which have diminished assurance in fiscal statements, increasing the cost of capital and stamp downing stock monetary values. This has besides raised concerns over the independency and the cogency of these fiscal studies including its relevancy and dependability.

    Agency theory indicates that auditees are sensitive to perceptual experiences of hearer independency and therefore are motivated to avoid struggle of involvement or prejudice. One manner they achieve this is through pull offing degrees of economic bonding between the hearer and themselves through commanding purchases of non-audit services from their hearer[ 3 ]

    The degree of struggle of involvement that exists at that place in the truly universe is far more than regulators have suspected. A really cardinal feature of an audit or confidence service supplier is for the hearer to add credibleness to fiscal study or other capable affair and needs to stay independent, run intoing the cardinal ethical demands. The trial for independency is sensible individual trial – would a sensible individual holding entree to all facts consider that the hearer was independent? The accent here is on both the perceived independency – how others will see the hearer ; and existent independency – province of head of the hearer. Can the hearer really extinguish prejudice and personal involvement from their determinations, and non yield to any force per unit areas or influences?[ 4 ]

    After the recent prostrations of celebrated companies such as Enron[ I ], WorldCom[ two ], HIH and others the independency of Auditors, Board of Directors, and the accounting profession as a whole are being questioned. The inquiry that comes head is ; are the Auditors, Board of Directors and even the direction of the companies honest, and dependable? Are the published studies dependable and can they be used to do economical and concern determinations? Who is to fault for such unethical behavior?

    As quoted by Williams ( 2002 ) , “ the Enron theoretical account is in rags as America ; from the White house to Wall Street tried to work out how it all went incorrect. The corporate sector is fighting to prolong investor assurance in the really machinery of American capitalist economy as examination falls on board of managers, audit commissions, the accounting industry, regulators and the jurisprudence shapers themselves. One truism remains: Enron ‘s function as a posting kid for the new paradigm. Negligence, slippery Numberss, fabricated income statements, insider traffics, struggles of involvement – these are the new proverbs for the corporate America. As Arthur Andersen went test, the honestness and dependability of Corporate America was in the dock excessively. ”[ 5 ]

    Williams farther states “ that the surpluss of elephantine corporate payouts, old-boy webs and cross-directorships, insider portion gross revenues and ambidextrous net incomes have left investors staggering. … The inquiry hanging in the air is whether anyone can be trusted with other people ‘s money any longer. ”[ 6 ]

    Background on Enron and World Com

    Enron was founded as a grapevine company in Houston in 1985. Enron was ab initio involved in conveying and administering electricity and natural gas throughout the United States. The company developed, built, and operated power workss and grapevines while covering with regulations of jurisprudence and other substructures worldwide. Enron owned a big web of natural gas grapevines which stretched ocean to ocean and surround to surround including Northern Natural Gas, Florida Gas Transwestern Pipeline Company and a partnership in Northern Border Pipeline from Canada[ 7 ].

    Before its bankruptcy in late 2001, Enron had about 22,000 staff and was one of the most celebrated electricity, natural gas, communications, and mush and paper companies. It had about more that $ 101 billion gross in 2000. Luck[ three ]named Enron “ America ‘s Most Advanced Company ” for six back-to-back old ages. At the terminal of 2001 it was revealed that its reported fiscal status was sustained well by institutionalized, systematic, and creatively planned accounting fraud, known as the “ Enron dirt ” .[ 8 ]

    Enron ‘s concern included many long term hazardous investings that had no short term grosss, which lead the company to make particular purpose entities ( SPE ‘s ) to distribute the hazard of these investings. Although this spread of hazard was in itself non illegal, the manner the SPE ‘s were created and finally managed was. To make these illegal SPE ‘s, Enron used the 3 % regulation ( EITF 90-15 ) , which states that 3 % of subordinate ‘s startup capital must come from an outside investor ; Enron really received this outside investing from directors in Enron or their married womans[ 9 ].

    Enron filed for bankruptcy protection in the Southern District of New York in late 2001 and selected Weil, Gotshal & A ; Mangers as its bankruptcy advocate. It emerged from bankruptcy in November 2004, pursuant to a court-approved program of reorganisation, after one of the biggest and most complex bankruptcy instances in U.S. history[ 10 ].

    Following the letdown of Enron, came another downtime in the American Economy, WorldCom failed. WorldCom, Inc. perpetrated the largest accounting fraud in U.S. history. The roots of WorldCom go to the Long Distance Discount Services, Inc. ( LDDS ) which began in Mississippi in 1983. The company went public in 1989 through a amalgamation with Advantage Companies Inc. The company name was changed to LDDS WorldCom in 1995, and subsequently merely WorldCom.[ 11 ]The company ‘s growing was fuelled chiefly through acquisitions during 1990s and reached its vertex with the acquisition of MCI in 1998.[ 12 ]

    WorldCom, now called MCI, emerged from bankruptcy protection on April 20, 2004 after being fined $ 750 million. In entire, WorldCom reported accounting abnormalities of $ 11 billion. While employees and investors look for single blameworthiness, much of WorldCom ‘s organisational construction and civilization potentially contributed non merely to the fraud but besides to the length of clip over which it occurred. In many ways, groupthink may assist explicate some of the issues and deceitful activities at WorldCom every bit good as the force per unit areas that were placed on employees widening the period over which the fraud occurred.[ 13 ]

    The SEC Report ( 2003 ) noted that cognition of the abnormalities was non limited to a few high degree executives. Many lower degree employees were cognizant that the accounting entries being posted were non bearable and that the prepared fiscal studies were false or, at a lower limit, really deceptive. “ Unusually, these employees often did non raise any expostulations despite their consciousness or intuitions that the accounting was incorrect, and merely followed waies or even enlisted the aid of others ” ( SEC, 2003, p. 7 ) .[ 14 ]

    What went incorrect?

    As stated clearly by the lead prosecuting officer for the section of Justice, in his shutting statements to the jury in the Enron instance:

    “ this is a simple instance, ladies and gentlemen. Because it ‘s so simple, I am likely traveling to stop before my allotted clip. It ‘s black and white. Truth and lies! The stockholders, ladies and gentlemen, … purchase a portion of stock, and for that they ‘re entitled to the truth. They ‘re entitled for the officers and employees of the company to set their involvements in front their ain. They ‘re entitled to be told what the fiscal status of the company is. They are entitled to honesty, ladies and gentlemen[ 15 ].

    The Powers Committee, a panel charged with look intoing Enron ‘s death, noted the company “ failed to accomplish a cardinal aim: they did non pass on the kernel of the minutess in a sufficiently clear manner to enable a reader of Enron ‘s fiscal statements to understand what was traveling on ” . In short they were non told plenty. Furthermore, the Committee besides stated that “ Enron ‘s board of managers failed to understand the economic principle, the effects and the hazards of their companies S.P.E trades. ”[ 16 ]

    Enron ‘s hearer were besides been accused of carry oning concern in an unethical mode in its effort to retain the trueness of Enron executives. The Torahs and SEC ordinances allowed houses like Arthur Andersen to supply confer withing services to a company and so turn around and supply the audited study about the fiscal consequences of these confer withing activities[ 17 ]; therefore doing an “ independent audit ” by Arthur Andersen independent in name merely. Enron ‘s top degree direction violated several accounting Torahs, SPE Torahs, and bent the accounting regulations to fulfill their ain desires to gain in the short term, wholly disregarding long term reverberations for investors, shareholders, employees and the concern itself. When Enron corrected these jobs in their fiscal statements, they restated with a loss of $ 609 million, Wall Street devalued their equity by $ 1.2 billion, and less than a month subsequently filed for bankruptcy.[ 18 ]As was subsequently discovered, many of Enron ‘s recorded assets and net incomes were inflated, or even entirely deceitful and nonexistent. Debts and losingss were put into entities formed “ offshore ” that were non included in the house ‘s fiscal statements, and other sophisticated and arcane fiscal minutess between Enron and related companies were used to take unprofitable entities off the company ‘s books[ 19 ].

    The fact that was surprising was that Enron was non paying any income revenue enhancement on four of its five old ages. Enron usage of mark-to-market accounting and SPE were an accounting game that made the company expression as though it was gaining far more money than it was. But the I.R.S did non accept mark-to-market accounting, since in the eyes of the I.R.S ; Enron was non doing any money.[ 20 ]

    In the WorldCom instance, SEC investigated for accounting practises, disputed client histories and committees on corporate concern[ 21 ].

    The SEC Report ( 2003 ) came to a decision ; that “ Ebbers ( CEO ) created the force per unit area that led to the fraud. He demanded the consequences he had promised, and he appeared to contemn the processs ( and people ) that should hold been a cheque on misreporting ” ( p. 18 ) . Furthermore, the SEC Report ( 2003 ) concluded that:

    “ WorldCom ‘s continued success became dependent on Ebbers ‘ ability to pull off the internal operations of what was so an huge company, and to make so in an industry-wide downswing. He was stunningly unsuccessful in this enterprise. He continued to feed Wall Street ‘s outlooks of double-digit growing, and he demanded that his subsidiaries meet those outlooks. But he did non supply the leading or managerial attending that would enable WorldCom to run into those outlooks lawfully. ” ( p. 5 )

    SEC study ( 2003 )[ 22 ]found that WorldCom ‘s ex-Chief Executive Officer ( CEO ) , Bernie Ebbers, initiated much of the civilization and force per unit area that allowed the fraud to transpirate. In concurrency with this determination, on March 2, 2004, Ebbers was charged with confederacy to perpetrate securities fraud, securities fraud, and falsely registering with the Securities and Exchange Commission ( Davidson, 2004 ; Moritz, 2004[ 23 ]) after Scott Sullivan, WorldCom ‘s ex-Chief Financial Officer ( CFO ) agreed to attest against him ( Pulliam, Latour, & A ; Brown, 2004[ 24 ]) . In entire, Ebbers now faces charges with a maximal punishment of 85 old ages in prison and an $ 8.25 million mulct ( Davidson, 2004 ) .[ 25 ]

    The SEC ( 2003 ) besides found that Scott Sullivan had the ill-conceived repute among employees for his faultless unity. Many of the finance and accounting employees who were cognizant of the abnormalities may hold rationalized that because of Sullivan ‘s unquestionable unity he must hold found some new methodological analysis or loophole in the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ( GAAP ) to back up the entries he was directing.[ 26 ]

    Beyond the accounting fraud, both Ebbers and Sullivan engaged in really questionable traffics with their employees. For illustration, harmonizing to the SEC ( 2003 ) , over an 18 month period stoping in 2002, Ebbers gave Ron Beaumont, WorldCom ‘s ex-Chief Operating Officer ( COO ) , a sum of $ 650,000 whereas Sullivan wrote personal cheques to seven of his directors giving them $ 20,000 each by composing one cheque to the employee for $ 10,000 and another to the employee ‘s partner for the same sum. Sullivan rationalized these final payments as a company fillip even though they were written on his personal checking history and no extra fillip was authorized by the company ‘s board of managers. The SEC ( 2003 ) stated that these Acts of the Apostless were “ non needfully improper in themselves… [ they ] created conflicting truenesss and deterrences to take a firm stand on proper behavior ” ( p. 23 ) . In add-on to these erstwhile payouts, there were besides a choice figure of employees who were compensated above WorldCom ‘s salary guidelines to advance trueness to the company ( Zekany, Braun, & A ; Warder, 2004[ 27 ]) .[ 28 ]

    As we go through the failures, we notice the followers:

    Disproof of the studies – audits agreed to state that the studies of these houses were true and just, when there were obvious deceit of the accounting processs and policies.

    Collusion of hearers with the direction – Hearers and the direction agreed mislead the stakeholders on the traffics and the non disclosure the full information to the populace. In the

    Hearers supplying non audit services to these clients and acquiring good returns from the NAS – economic sciences literature and the theories of ‘knowledge spillovers ‘ province that there are efficiencies to be gained from the joint supply of audit and NAS[ 29 ]. Research in this country shows assorted consequences, but in these case it seems like to be the instance

    There was deficiency / weak of corporate administration practiced by the houses – the fiscal executives failed in their responsibility to protect the company assets and supply full revelation to the stockholders. Besides the board of managers and the audit commission failed to protect investor involvement ( s ) .

    The studies were made to accommodate the demands of the direction, since most of the wagess ( pay outs ) were linked to public presentation on the net income and loss footing – the executives used aggressive net incomes criterions that barely anyone understood. The executives continued to demo good net income despite them non making good

    The usage of Accounting abnormalities and cooking the books – for case Enron used Mark to Market accounting. This is used by companies that engage in complicated fiscal trading. Here what was go oning, Enron used to gauge how much of gross the trade was traveling to convey in and set these in the fiscal studies every bit shortly as the contract is signed. Besides in Enron the company was utilizing the Particular purpose entities ( S.P.E ) . An SPE worked like a separate entity so that the company could demo growing and besides acquire more loans from the bank. In WorldCom ‘s state of affairs, the disbursals were understated by 3.8billion dollars and when the Auditors were called in they besides failed to happen the mistake.

    Business moralss were weak – the executives were ethically corrupt and their purposes were to to the full their pockets and non in the involvement of the stockholders, particularly in the instance of Enron

    The fiscal markets in the US were inquiring what went incorrect after the prostration of Enron & A ; WorldCom. The simple ground was that there was a corporate administration failure and that there was deficiency of honestness in today ‘s universe. So to counter these jobs the U.S Congress passed the Sarbanes Oxley Act in 2002.

    What was the Reaction?

    Following the prostration of big companies, investors can readily place their place grown dirts in about every market around the universe ; a assortment of stock uses and dirts that have caused values to plump in recent old ages on the turning stock markets of China, USA and others. Grynberg et Al ( 2002:113 ) argues that province ownership of commercial assets with weak systems of public financial administration was a formula for exactly the type of black results that were observed both in footings of absolute dollar values involved and the figure of people adversely affected. Interestingly, these corporate dirts have reaffirmed that even the most developed markets are non free from failures in the system. Public and authorities responses ushered in a new epoch of higher corporate administration criterions, and in some markets, new Torahs and regulative demands are ( rhenium ) determining the administration construction. In the U.S. , for illustration, Congress passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002[ four ]to reconstruct public trust in the fiscal markets. The New York Stock Exchange and the NASDAQ Market besides adopted higher criterions for board independency[ 30 ].

    The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, was created months after Enron Corp. , WorldCom and several other companies that were hauled up for accounting fraud in the US, created some of the most rigorous fiscal revelation norms for public listed companies in the state, including keeping a company ‘s senior executives lawfully responsible for the veracity of their fiscal statements.[ 31 ]When President Bush signed the Act into jurisprudence, he characterized it as “ the most far-reaching reform of

    American concern patterns since the clip of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. ”[ 32 ]

    The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 is a 66-page aggregation of demands, many left for existent definition by the SEC, designed to foreground and extinguish what its advocates have settled on as the root causes of the fiscal fiascos. But loosely, with some frankly distressing exclusions, the Act merely makes

    Federal jurisprudence out of bing fiscal regulative governments and patterns, and either creates or increases bing condemnable punishments for white collar offenses.[ 33 ]

    The Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002 severely affects the accounting profession and provides more strict independency demands and more ruthless punishments for breaches. The major commissariats of the Act are the constitution of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board ( PCAOB ) , prohibition of hearers from executing certain non-audit services[ V ]( commissariats are contained in Sections 201 and 202 of Title II ) for their audit clients, infliction of greater condemnable punishments for corporate fraud, mandates audits spouse rotary motion and strengthens the function of the audit commission and name for more elaborate and timely revelation of fiscal information.[ 34 ]

    Further, Section 404 of the Act requires that direction buttocks internal controls and that hearer ‘s study on the internal controls of their clients. By necessitating deeper inadvertence, enforcing greater punishments for misconduct, and covering with possible struggles of involvement, the Act aims to forestall delusory accounting and direction misbehavior.

    The Sarbanes Oxley Act 2002 besides extends the legislative act of restrictions for the find of fraud to two old ages ( antecedently one twelvemonth ) from the day of the month of find and five old ages after the act ( antecedently three old ages ) . The Act establishes unsympathetic punishments for securities jurisprudence misdemeanors, corporate cozenage and papers shredding and requires the Chief Executive Officer ( CEO ) and Chief Financial Officer ( CFO ) to officially province that the fiscal study reasonably nowadayss in all stuff respects the operations and status of the company. It besides requires direction to supply a study on the effectivity of internal control over fiscal coverage and the hearer T provide confidence that the study is appropriate.[ 35 ]

    The SOX affects non merely US companies and US Auditors, but any audit house actively working as a hearer of, or for, a publically traded US company or its subordinate. Therefore, the Act screens and Australian audit house or Pacific audit house that does the audit of a subordinate of a US listed company or that of any company listed in the US stock exchange[ 36 ].

    Sarbanes-Oxley contains 11 rubrics that describe specific authorizations and demands for fiscal coverage. Each rubric consists of several subdivisions, summarized below.[ 37 ]{ Note the undermentioned subdivision has been adopted from Wikipedia, the he free encyclopaedia }

    Public Company Accounting Oversight Board ( PCAOB ) – provides independent inadvertence of public accounting houses supplying audit services. Explains on the audit policies and processs to used

    Auditor Independence – reference the issue of struggle of involvement and hearer rotary motion and other services to be provided or non to be provided

    Corporate Responsibility – authorizes that senior executives take single duty for the truth and completeness of studies. It defines the interaction of external hearers and corporate audit commissions, and specifies the duty of corporate officers for the truth and cogency of corporate fiscal studies. It enumerates specific bounds on the behavior of corporate officers and describes specific forfeitures of benefits and civil punishments for non-compliance.

    Enhanced Financial Disclosures – describes enhanced coverage demands. Besides requires internal controls to be assured for truth and requires a audit and study on the internal control systems

    Analyst Conflicts of Interest – includes steps designed to assist reconstruct investor assurance in the coverage of securities analysts. It defines the codifications of behavior for securities analysts and requires revelation of cognizable struggles of involvement.

    Commission Resources and Authority – defines patterns to reconstruct investor assurance in securities analysts. It besides defines the SEC ‘s authorization to animadversion or saloon securities professionals from pattern and defines conditions under which a individual can be barred from practising as a agent, adviser, or trader.

    Surveies and Reports – requires on-going research and analysis of the studies and new accounting ordinances

    Corporate and Criminal Fraud Accountability – describes specific condemnable punishments for use, devastation or change of fiscal records or other intervention with probes, while supplying certain protections for whistle blowers.

    White Collar Crime Penalty Enhancement – increases the condemnable punishments associated with white-collar offenses and confederacies. It recommends stronger condemning guidelines and specifically adds failure to attest corporate fiscal studies as a condemnable discourtesy.

    Corporate Tax Returns – provinces that the CEO to subscribe revenue enhancement returns

    Corporate Fraud Accountability – identifies corporate fraud and records fiddling as condemnable discourtesies and articulations those discourtesies to specific punishments. It besides revises condemning guidelines and strengthens their punishments. This enables the SEC the resort to temporarily stop dead minutess or payments that have been deemed “ big ” or “ unusual ” .

    Nothing had shaken the accounting and scrutinizing professions more than the prostration of Enron and the ensuing prohibition from scrutinizing public companies placed on Arthur Anderson, one of the largest and oldest accounting houses around. The signal was clear – the demand for alteration within the professions and throughout the audit map. The Congress in the US reacted by implementing SOX as a preventive attack to another Enron. However, the inquiry still remains: Is SOX the solution?

    Will SOX avoid another Enron or WorldCom?

    Research into the subject of SOX being the solution, has showed assorted consequences. This paper will foreground merely some of the consequences shown by research workers over the past few old ages.

    Consequently to the Wikipedia, the free Encyclopaedia, Former Federal Reserve Chairman, praised the Sarbanes-Oxley Act: “ I am surprised that the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, so quickly developed and enacted, has functioned every bit good as it has… the act significantly reinforced the rule that stockholders own our corporations and that corporate directors should be working on behalf of stockholders to apportion concern resources to their optimal usage. ”[ 38 ]

    SOX, has been praised by a cross-section of fiscal industry experts, mentioning improved investor assurance and more accurate, dependable fiscal statements. The CEO and CFO are now required to unambiguously take ownership for their fiscal statements under Section 302, which was non the instance prior to SOX. Further, hearer struggles of involvement have been addressed, by forbiding hearers from besides holding moneymaking consulting understandings with the houses they audit under Section 201[ 39 ]. SEC Chairman Christopher Cox stated in 2007: “ Sarbanes-Oxley helped reconstruct trust in U.S. markets by increasing answerability, rushing up coverage, and doing audits more independent. ”[ 40 ]

    The FEI 2007 survey and research by the Institute of Internal Auditors ( IIA ) besides indicated SOX has improved investor assurance in fiscal coverage, a primary aim of the statute law. The IIA survey besides indicated betterments in board, audit commission, and senior direction battle in fiscal coverage and betterments in fiscal controls[ 41 ].

    The Wikipedia, the free Encyclopaedia furthermore provinces, fiscal restatements increased significantly in the aftermath of the SOX statute law and have since dramatically declined, as companies “ cleaned up ” their books. Glass, Lewis & amp ; Co. LLC is a San Francisco-based house that tracks the volume of do-overs by public companies. Its March 2006 study, “ Geting It Wrong the First Time, ” shows 1,295 restatements of fiscal net incomes in 2005 for companies listed on U.S. securities markets, about twice the figure for 2004. “ That ‘s about one restatement for every 12 public companies-up from one for every 23 in 2004, ” says the study.[ 42 ]

    On the contrary, SOX has besides been cited for weakening investing and possible growing of the American Economy. Harmonizing to Zhang, the cumulative unnatural return around the legislative events taking to SOX is significantly negative. The unnatural returns are mostly undistinguished around the events related to the execution of SOX. The grounds reveals that investors consider the Act to be dearly-won and/or the information conveyed by the transition of the Act to be bad intelligence for concern. The loss in market value around the most important rulemaking events amounts to $ 1.4 trillion, which likely reflects direct conformity costs, indirect costs and expected costs of future anti-business statute law. The impact of other contemporary intelligence proclamations is besides incorporated into the unnatural return, but a farther scrutiny of intraday returns shows that such proclamations are improbable the cardinal driver of the negative returns in July 2002[ 43 ].

    Furthermore Zhang, states that houses ‘ cumulative unnatural returns are diminishing with their purchases of non-audit services and the complexness of their concern. These findings suggest that the limitation of non-audit services and the new demand of the internal control trials are dearly-won. The trial of market reactions to the proclamation of proroguing conformity with Section 404 shows that the delay is peculiarly good for little houses. Most significantly, he found that houses with sensed weak administration experience lower unnatural returns around the events that increase the likeliness of go throughing tough administration regulations. The consequences show that these houses do non profit from enhanced administration as normally expected, but really lose more as a consequence of SOX. This happening significantly challenges the value of SOX, as it is chiefly characterized as statute law “ bettering ” corporate administration and increasing stockholder value.[ 44 ]

    Another recent study of more than 80 US fraud testers indicate that most believe fraud is more prevailing today than it was in 2002 when SOX was introduced. 75 % of the respondents to Oversight Systems most recent Annual survey on corporate fraud is prevailed today, compared with two out of three respondents in 2005 study. Merely 3 % of respondents felt that fraud was less prevailing. “ The first several old ages of SOX has non been effectual ( in forestalling fraud ) ” .[ 45 ]Furthermore, 42 % 500 respondents believe that corporate watchfulness around fraud bar has slackened since SOX. 13 % said there was a perceptual experience of greater corporate watchfulness. Similar consequences were found in 2007 study[ 46 ].

    The chief issues identified in this have been addressed by SOX, nevertheless, SOX has failed to turn to:

    The cost of new naming on the stock exchanges. Companies are non desiring to travel public as the execution cost of SOX is high

    The impact of the SOX in acquiring competitory border for the US houses in comparing to foreign houses.

    The execution has been expensive and most of the houses are cut downing other costs in order to keep the cost of implementing SOX, hence consisting the future growing of the houses and therefore the economic growing of US.

    Finally, can we construct moralss or ethical behavior in one person, society or the group of forces ‘s pull offing a company. In my position moralss and ethical behavior is adopted by the milieus and the people involved and non by jurisprudence or statute laws such as SOX.


    The turnaround of the century was greeted by the convulsion of catastrophes for the fiscal markets across the planetary. The planetary was plagued with corrupt and untrusty executives. The fiscal markets in the US and Australia were inquiring what went incorrect? The simple ground was that there was a corporate administration failure and that there was deficiency of honestness in today ‘s universe.

    In despair, of these failures the U.S Congress introduced the Sarbanes Oxley Act in 2002. The act was designed to “ protect investors by bettering the truth and dependability of corporate revelations ” . The act was able to turn to the appropriate relationship between the independent hearers and the direction of the company being audited, stipulate appropriate corporate administration patterns, stipulate commissariats to esteem corporate fraud and answerability and eventually set up demands for internal control to guarantee proper execution and certification of the systems for more unity and answerability. With the execution of the Act, it does look like that it will forestall future failures such as Enron.

    On the contrary, while SOX calls for independent managers, dividing the functions of executives, criminalizing loan strategy, protecting whistle blowers and doing the managers and the audit commissions more accountable, but are they plenty? The cost of execution has been high and the proviso have already being watered down. Can we learn or construct moralss in oneself? The managers, directors and other demand to retrieve is that moralss affair and must be demonstrated from the top ; that it is better to market outlooks instead than to pull off net incomes to run into outlooks ; and that it is false economic system to stint on information and control systems. None of this will forestall companies pursing blemished schemes or doing hapless acquisitions. Nor will it harness in the excessively ambitious and avaricious CEO unless it is a strong, knowing and disputing board.

    To reason SOX does supply for more tougher ordinances and more tighter controls for administration and coverage, nevertheless, it will neglect to construct a better society and besides will non be able prevent corporate failures. It will work out the jobs highlighted by Enron and WorldCom, but it will non work out ethical issues and behavior of corporate leaders/executives.

    This essay was written by a fellow student. You may use it as a guide or sample for writing your own paper, but remember to cite it correctly. Don’t submit it as your own as it will be considered plagiarism.

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