Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar 3. 3 Welding and welded connections Welding is the process of joining two pieces of metal by creating a strong metallurgical bond between them by heating or pressure or both. It is distinguished from other forms of mechanical connections, such as riveting or bolting, which are formed by friction or mechanical interlocking. It is one of the oldest and reliable methods of joining. Welding offers many advantages over bolting and riveting. Welding enables direct transfer of stress between members eliminating gusset and splice plates necessary for bolted structures.Order now
Hence, the weight of the joint is minimum. In the case of tension members, the absence of holes improves the efficiency of the section. It involves less fabrication cost compared to other methods due to handling of fewer parts and elimination of operations like drilling, punching etc. and consequently less labour leading to economy. Welding offers air tight and water tight joining and hence is ideal for oil storage tanks, ships etc. Welded structures also have a neat appearance and enable the connection of complicated shapes. Welded structures are more rigid compared to structures with riveted and bolted connections.
A truly continuous structure is formed by the process of fusing the members together. Generally welded joints are as strong or stronger than the base metal, thereby placing no restriction on the joints. Stress concentration effect is also considerably less in a welded connection. Some of the disadvantages of welding are that it requires skilled manpower for welding as well as inspection. Also, non-destructive evaluation may have to be carried out to detect defects in welds. Welding in the field may be difficult due to the location or environment. Welded joints are highly prone to cracking under fatigue loading.
Large residual stresses and distortion are developed in welded connections. 3. 3. 1 Fundamentals of welding A welded joint is obtained when two clean surfaces are brought into contact with each other and either pressure or heat, or both are applied to obtain a bond. The tendency of atoms to bond is the fundamental basis of welding. The inter-diffusion Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar between the materials that are joined is the underlying principle in all welding processes.
The diffusion may take place in the liquid, solid or mixed state. In welding the metallic materials are joined by the formation of metallic bonds and a perfect connection is formed. In practice however, it is very difficult to achieve a perfect joint; for, real surfaces are never smooth. When welding, contact is established only at a few points in the surface, joins irregular surfaces where atomic bonding occurs. Therefore the strength attained will be only a fraction of the full strength. Also, the irregular surface may not be very clean, being contaminated with adsorbed moisture, oxide film, grease layer etc.
In the welding of such surfaces, the contaminants have to be removed for the bonding of the surface atoms to take place. This can be accomplished by applying either heat or pressure. In practical welding, both heat and pressure are applied to get a good joint. As pointed out earlier, any welding process needs some form of energy, often heat, to connect the two materials. The relative amount of heat and pressure required to join two materials may vary considerably between two extreme cases in which either heat or pressure alone is applied.
When heat alone is applied to make the joint, pressure is used merely to keep the joining members together. Examples of such a process are Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) etc. On the other hand pressure alone is used to make the bonding by plastic deformation, examples being cold welding, roll welding, ultrasonic welding etc. There are other welding methods where both pressure and heat are employed, such as resistance welding, friction welding etc. A flame, an arc or resistance to an electric current, produces the required heat.
Electric arc is by far the most popular source of heat used in commercial welding practice. 3. 3. 2 Welding process In general, gas and arc welding are employed; but, almost all structural welding is arc welding. Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar In gas welding a mixture of oxygen and some suitable gas is burned at the tip of a torch held in the welder’s hand or by an automatic machine. Acetylene is the gas used in structural welding and the process is called oxyacetylene welding. The flame produced can be used both for cutting and welding of metals.
Gas welding is a simple and inexpensive process. But, the process is slow compared to other means of welding. It is generally used for repair and maintenance work. The most common welding processes, especially for structural steel, use electric energy as the heat source produced by the electric arc. IS:816 in this process, the base metal and the welding rod are heated to the fusion temperature by an electric arc. The arc is a continuous spark formed when a large current at a low voltage is discharged between the electrode and the base metal through a thermally ionised gaseous column, called plasma.
The resistance of the air or gas between the electrode and the objects being welded changes the electric energy into heat. A temperature of 33000 C to 55000 C is produced in the arc. The welding rod is connected to one terminal of the current source and the object to be welded to the other. In arc welding, fusion takes place by the flow of material from the welding rod across the arc without pressure being applied. The Shielded Metal Arc Welding process is explained in the following paragraph. In Shielded Metal Arc Welding or SMAW (Fig. 3. 12), heating is done by means of electric arc between a coated electrode and the material being joined.
In case bare wire electrode (without coating) is employed, the molten metal gets exposed to atmosphere and combines chemically with oxygen and nitrogen forming defective welds. The electrode coating on the welding rod forms a gaseous shield that helps to exclude oxygen and stabilise the arc. The coated electrode also deposits a slag in the molten metal, which because of its lesser density compared to the base metal, floats on the surface of the molten metal pool, shields it from atmosphere, and slows cooling. After cooling, the slag can be easily removed by hammering and wire brushing.
Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar The coating on the electrode thus: shields the arc from atmosphere; coats the molten metal pool against oxidation; stabilises the arc; shapes the molten metal by surface tension and provides alloying element to weld metal. Fig. 3. 12 Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process Fig. 3. 12 Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process The type of welding electrode used would decide the weld properties such as strength, ductility and corrosion resistance.
The type to be used for a particular job depends upon the type of metal being welded, the amount of material to be added and the position of the work. The two general classes of electrodes are lightly coated and heavily coated. The heavily coated electrodes are normally used in structural welding. The resulting welds are stronger, more corrosion resistant and more ductile compared to welds produced by lightly coated electrodes. Usually the SMAW process is either automatic or semi-automatic. The term weldability is defined as the ability to obtain economic welds, which are good, crack-free and would meet all the requirements.
Of great importance are the chemistry and the structure of the base metal and the weld metal. The effects of heating and cooling associated with fusion welding are experienced by the weld metal and the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) of the base metal. The cracks in HAZ are mainly caused by high carbon content, hydrogen enbrittlement and rate of cooling. For most steels, weld cracks become a problem as the thickness of the plates increases. Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar 3. 3. 3 Types of joints and welds
By means of welding, it is possible to make continuous, load bearing joints between the members of a structure. A variety of joints is used in structural steel work and they can be classified into four basic configurations namely, Lap joint, Tee joint, Butt joint and Corner joint. For lap joints, the ends of two members are overlapped and for butt joints, the two members are placed end to end. The T- joints form a Tee and in Corner joints, the ends are joined like the letter L. Most common joints are made up of fillet weld or the butt (also calling groove) weld. Plug and slot welds are not generally used in structural steel work. Fig. . 14 Fillet welds are suitable for lap joints and Tee joints and groove welds for butt and corner joints. Butt welds can be of complete penetration or incomplete penetration depending upon whether the penetration is complete through the thickness or partial. Generally a description of welded joints requires an indication of the type of both the joint and the weld. Though fillet welds are weaker than butt welds, about 80% of the connections are made with fillet welds. The reason for the wider use of fillet welds is that in the case of fillet welds, when members are lapped over each other, large tolerances are allowed in erection.
For butt welds, the members to be connected have to fit perfectly when they are lined up for welding. Further butt welding requires the shaping of the surfaces to be joined as shown in Fig. 3. 15. To ensure full penetration and a sound weld, a backup plate is temporarily provided as shown in Fig. 3. 15 Butt welds: Full penetration butt welds are formed when the parts are connected together within the thickness of the parent metal. For thin parts, it is possible to achieve full penetration of the weld. For thicker parts, edge preparation may have to be done to achieve the welding.
There are nine different types of butt joints: square, single V, Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar double V, single U, double U, single J, double J, single bevel and double bevel. They are shown in Fig. 3. 13 In order to qualify for a full penetration weld; there are certain conditions to be satisfied while making the welds. Welds are also classified according to their position into flat, horizontal, vertical and overhead. Flat welds are the most economical to make while overhead welds are the most difficult and expensive.
Fig. 3. 13 Different types of butt welds The main use of butt welds is to connect structural members, which are in the same plane. A few of the many different butt welds are shown in Fig. 3. 16. There are many variations of butt welds and each is classified according to its particular shape. Each type of butt weld requires a specific edge preparation and is named accordingly. The proper selection of a particular type depends upon: Size of the plate to be joined; welding is by hand or automatic; type of welding equipment, whether both sides are accessible and the position of the weld.
Butt welds have high strength, high resistance to impact and cyclic stress. They are most direct joints and introduce least eccentricity in the joint. But their major disadvantages are: high residual stresses, necessity of edge preparation and proper aligning of the members in the field. Therefore, field butt joints are rarely used. Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar Fig. 3. 14 Common types of welds Fig. 3. 15 Shaping of surface and backup plate Fig. 3. 6 Typical connections with butt weld To minimise weld distortions and residual stresses, the heat input is minimised and hence the welding volume is minimised. This reduction in the volume of weld also Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar reduces cost. Hence for thicker plates, double Butt welds and U welds are generally used. For a butt weld, the root gap, R, is the separation of the pieces being joined and is provided for the electrode to access the base of a joint. The smaller the root gap the greater the angle of the bevel.
The depth by which the arc melts into the plate is called the depth of penetration . Roughly, the penetration is about 1 mm per 100A and in manual welding the current is usually 150 – 200 A. Therefore, the mating edges of the plates must be cut back if through-thickness continuity is to be established. This groove is filled with the molten metal from the electrode. The first run that is deposited in the bottom of a groove is termed as the root run . For good penetration, the root faces must be melted. Simultaneously, the weld pool also must be controlled, preferably, by using a backing strip.
Fig. 3. 17 Butt weld details Fillet welds: Owing to their economy, ease of fabrication and adaptability, fillet welds are widely used. They require less precision in the fitting up because the plates being joined can be moved about more than the Butt welds. Another advantage of fillet welds is that special preparation of edges, as required by Butt welds, is not required. In a fillet weld the stress condition in the weld is quite different from that of the connected parts. A typical fillet weld is shown in Fig. 3. 18 Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof.
A. R. Santha Kumar Fig. 3. 18 Typical fillet weld The root of the weld is the point where the faces of the metallic members meet. The theoretical throat of a weld is the shortest distance from the root to the hypotenuse of the triangle. The throat area equals the theoretical throat distance times the length of the weld. The concave shape of free surface provides a smoother transition between the connected parts and hence causes less stress concentration than a convex surface. But it is more vulnerable to shrinkage and cracking than the convex surface and has a much reduced throat area to transfer stresses.
On the other hand, convex shapes provide extra weld metal or reinforcement for the throat. For statically loaded structures, a slightly convex shape is preferable, while for fatigue – prone structures, concave surface is desirable. Large welds are invariably made up of a number of layers or passes. For reasons of economy, it is desirable to choose weld sizes that can be made in a single pass. Large welds scan be made in a single pass by an automatic machine, though manually, 8 mm fillet is the largest single-pass layer. Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A.
R. Santha Kumar 3. 3. 4 Weld symbols The information concerning type, size, position, welding process etc. of the welds in welded joints is conveyed by standard symbols in drawings. The symbolic representation includes elementary symbols along with a) supplementary symbol, b) a means of showing dimensions, or c) some complementary indications. IS: 813 “Scheme of Symbols for Welding” gives all the details of weld representation in drawings. Elementary symbols represent the various categories of the weld and look similar to the shape of the weld to be made. Combination of elementary symbols may also be used, when required.
Elementary symbols are shown in Table 3. 2. Table 3. 2 Elementary symbols Illustration (Fig) Symbol Description Butt weld between plates with raised edges*(the raised edges being melted down completely) Square butt weld Single-V butt weld Single-bevel butt weld Single – V butt weld with broad root face Single – bevel butt weld with broad root face Single – U butt weld (parallel or sloping sides) Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar Single – J butt joint Backing run; back or backing weld Fillet weld Plug weld; plug or slot weld
Spot weld Seam weld Supplementary symbols characterise the external surface of the weld and they complete the elementary symbols. Supplementary symbols are shown in Table 3. 3. The weld locations are defined by specifying, a) position of the arrow line, b) position of the reference line, and c) the position of the symbol. More details of weld representation may be obtained from IS 813. Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar Table 3. 3. Supplementary symbols Flat (flush) single – V butt weld Convex double – V butt weld Concave fillet weld
Flat (flush) single – V butt with flat (flush) backing run Position of symbols in drawings: Apart from the symbols as covered earlier, the methods of representation (Fig. 3. 19) also include the following: · An arrow line for each joint . A dual reference line, consisting of two parallel lines, one continuous and the other dashed. . A certain number of dimensions and conventional signs The location of welds is classified on the drawings by specifying: Position of the arrow line, position of the reference line and the position of the symbol Fig. 3. 19 Method of representation Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures
Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar The position of arrow line with respect to the weld has no special significance. The arrow line joins one end of the continuous reference line such that it forms an angle with it and shall be completed by an arrowhead or a dot. The reference line is a straight line drawn parallel to the bottom edge of the drawing. The symbol is placed either above or beneath the reference line. The symbol is placed on the continuous side of the reference line if the weld is on the other side of the joint; the symbol is placed on the dashed line side 3. 3. 5 Design of welds Design of butt welds:
For butt welds the most critical form of loading is tension applied in the transverse direction. It has been observed from tests conducted on tensile coupons containing a full penetration butt weld normal to the applied load that the welded joint had higher strength than the parent metal itself. The yield stress of the weld metal and the parent metal in the HAZ region was found to be much higher than the parent metal. The butt weld is normally designed for direct tension or compression. However, a provision is made to protect it from shear. Design strength value is often taken the same as the parent metal strength.
For design purposes, the effective area of the butt-welded connection is taken as the effective length of the weld times the throat size. Effective length of the butt weld is taken as the length of the continuous full size weld. The throat size is specified by the effective throat thickness. For a full penetration butt weld, the throat dimension is usually assumed as the thickness of the thinner part of the connection. Even though a butt weld may be reinforced on both sides to ensure full cross-sectional areas, its effect is neglected while estimating the throat dimensions.
Such reinforcements often have a negative effect, producing stress concentration, especially under cyclic loads. Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar Unsealed butt welds of V, U, J and bevel types and incomplete penetration butt welds should not be used for highly stressed joints and joints subjected to dynamic and alternating loads. Intermittent butt welds are used to resist shear only and the effective length should not be less than four times the longitudinal space between the effective length of welds nor more han 16 times the thinner part. They are not to be used in locations subjected to dynamic or alternating stresses. Some modern codes do not allow intermittent welds in bridge structures. For butt welding parts with unequal cross sections, say unequal width, or thickness, the dimensions of the wider or thicker part should be reduced at the butt joint to those of the smaller part. This is applicable in cases where the difference in thickness exceeds 25 % of the thickness of the thinner part or 3. 0 mm, whichever is greater. The slope provided at the joint for the thicker part should not be steeper than one in five . In instances, where this is not practicable, the weld metal is built up at the junction equal to a thickness which is at least 25 % greater than the thinner part or equal to the dimension of the thicker part . Where reduction of the wider part is not possible, the ends of the weld shall be returned to ensure full throat thickness. Stresses for butt welds are assumed same as for the parent metal with a thickness equal to the throat thickness (Cl. 10. 5. 7. 1). For field welds, the permissible stresses in shear and tension calculated using a partial factor ? mw of 1. 5. (Cl. 0. 5. 7. 2) Design of fillet welds: Fillet welds are broadly classified into side fillets and end fillets (Fig. 3. 21). When a connection with end fillet is loaded in tension, the weld develops high strength and the stress developed in the weld is equal to the value of the weld metal. But the ductility is minimal. On the other hand, when a specimen with side weld is loaded, the load axis is parallel to the weld axis. The weld is subjected to shear and the weld shear strength is limited to just about half the weld metal tensile strength. But ductility is considerably Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar improved. For intermediate weld positions, the value of strength and ductility show intermediate values. Fig. 3. 20 Butt welding of members with (a) & (b) unequal thickness (c) unequal width In many cases, it is possible to use the simplified approach of average stresses in the weld throat (Fig. 3. 22). In order to apply this method, it is important to establish equilibrium with the applied load. Studies conducted on fillet welds have shown that the fillet weld shape is very important for end fillet welds.
For equal leg lengths, making the direction of applied tension nearly parallel to the throat leads to a large reduction in strength. The optimum weld shape recommended is to provide shear leg ? 3 times the tension leg. A small variation in the side fillet connections has negligible effect on strength. In general, fillet welds are stronger in compression than in tension. Fig. 3. 21 Fillet (a) side welds and (b) end welds Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar Fig. 3. 2 Average stress in the weld throat A simple approach to design is to assume uniform fillet weld strength in all directions and to specify a certain throat stress value. The average throat thickness is obtained by dividing the applied loads summed up in vectorial form per unit length by the throat size. This method is limited in usage to cases of pure shear, tension or compression (Fig. 3. 23). It cannot be used in cases where the load vector direction varies around weld group. For the simple method, the stress is taken as the vector sum of the force components acting in the weld divided by the throat area. Fig. . 23 (a) connections with simple weld design, (b) connections with Direction- dependent weld design Stresses Due to Individual forces – When subjected to either compressive or tensile or shear force alone, the stress in the weld is given by: Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar fa or q = Where P t t lw fa = calculated normal stress due to axial force in N/mm2 q = shear stress in N/mm2 P = force transmitted (axial force N or the shear force Q) tt = effective throat thickness of weld in mm lw= effective length of weld in mm Fig. 3. 4 End fillet weld normal to direction of force The design strength of a fillet weld, fwd, shall be based on its throat area (Cl. 10. 5. 7). fwd = fwn / ? mw in which fwn = f u / 3 Where fu = smaller of the ultimate stress of the weld and the parent metal and ?mw = partial safety factor (=1. 25 for shop welds and = 1. 5 for field welds) The design strength shall be reduced appropriately for long joints as prescribed in the code. The size of a normal fillet should be taken as the minimum leg size (Fig. 3. 25) Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar Fig. 3. 5 Sizes of fillet welds For a deep penetration weld, the depth of penetration should be a minimum of 2. 4 mm. Then the size of the weld is minimum leg length plus 2. 4 mm. The size of a fillet weld should not be less than 3 mm or more than the thickness of the thinner part joined. Minimum size requirement of fillet welds is given below in Table 3. 4 (Cl. 10. 5. 2. 3). Effective throat thickness should not be less than 3 mm and should not exceed 0. 7 t and 1. 0 t under special circumstances, where’t’ is the thickness of thinner part. Table 3. 4 Minimum size of first run or of a single run fillet weld Thickness of thicker part (mm) t ? 0 10 < t ? 20 20 < t ? 32 32 < t ? 50 Minimum size (mm) 3 5 6 8 (First run)10 (Minimum size of fillet) For stress calculations, the effective throat thickness should be taken as K times fillet size, where K is a constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion faces are given in Table 3. 5 (Cl. 10. 5. 3. 2). Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts whose fusion faces form angles between 60° and 120°. The actual length is taken as the length having the effective length plus twice the weld size. Minimum effective length should not be less than four times the weld size.
When a fillet weld is provided to square edge of a part, the weld size should be at least 1. 5 mm less than the edge Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar thickness . For the rounded toe of a rolled section, the weld size should not exceed 3/4 thickness of the section at the toe (Cl. 10. 5. 8. 1). Fig. 3. 26 (a) Fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) Fillet Welds on round toe of rolled section Table 3. 5. Value of K for different angles between fusion faces Angle between fusion faces Constant K 60° – 90° 0. 0 91°-100° 0. 65 101°-106° 0. 60 107°-113° 0. 55 114°-120° 0. 50 Intermittent fillet welds may be provided where the strength required is less than that can be developed by a continuous fillet weld of the smallest allowable size for the parts joined. The length of intermediate welds should not be less than 4 times the weld size with a minimum of 40 mm. The clear spacing between the effective lengths of the intermittent welds should be less than or equal to 12 times the thickness of the thinner member in compression and 16 times in tension; in no case the length should exceed 20 cm.
Chain intermittent welding is better than staggered intermittent welding. Intermittent fillet welds are not used in main members exposed to weather. For lap joints, the overlap should not be less than five times the thickness of the thinner part. For fillet welds to be used in slots and holes, the dimension of the slot or hole should comply with the following limits: a) The width or diameter should not be less than three times the thickness or 25 mm whichever is greater b) Corners at the enclosed ends or slots should be rounded with a radius not less than 1. times the thickness or 12 mm whichever is greater, and Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar c) The distance between the edge of the part and the edge of the slot or hole, or between adjacent slots or holes, should be not less than twice the thickness and not less than 25 mm for the holes. Fig. 3. 27 End returns for side welds The effective area of a plug weld is assumed as the nominal area of the whole in the plane of the faying surface.
Plug welds are not designed to carry stresses. If two or more of the general types of weld (butt, fillet, plug or slots) are combined in a single joint, the effective capacity of each has to be calculated separately with reference to the axis of the group to determine the capacity of the welds. The high stress concentration at ends of welds is minimised by providing welds around the ends as shown in Fig. 3. 27. These are called end returns. Most designers neglect end returns in the effective length calculation of the weld.
End returns are invariably provided for welded joints that are subject to eccentricity, impact or stress reversals. The end returns are provided for a distance not less than twice the size of the weld. Design of plug and slot welds: In certain instances, the lengths available for the normal longitudinal fillet welds may not be sufficient to resist the loads. In such a situation, the required strength may be built up by welding along the back of the channel at the edge of the plate if sufficient space is available. This is shown in Fig. . 28 (a). Another way of developing the required strength is by providing slot or plug welds. Slot and plug welds are generally used along with fillet welds in lap joints. On certain occasions, plug welds are used to fill the holes that are temporarily made for erection bolts for beam and Indian Institute of Technology Madras Design of Steel Structures Prof. S. R. Satish Kumar and Prof. A. R. Santha Kumar column connections. However, their strength may not be considered in the overall strength of the joint.
The limitations given in specifications for the maximum sizes of plug and slot welds are necessary to avoid large shrinkage, which might be caused around these welds when they exceed the specified sizes. The strength of a plug or slot weld is calculated by considering the allowable stress and its nominal area in the shearing plane. This area is usually referred to as the faying surface and is equal to the area of contact at the base of the slot or plug. The length of the slot weld can be obtained from the following relationship: Load ( Width ) allowable stress L= (3. 15) Fig. 3. 28 Slot and plug welds Indian Institute of Technology Madras