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    USACE Essay

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    HIS 102WESTERN CIVILIZATION IITerms & Key WordsSection IITopic #2: The Reign of Terror and the GuillotineStorming of the Tuileries (Aug 1792): revolutionary event during which the king’s Swiss Guards were massacred by the Paris mob, forcing Louis XVI to seek refuge with the National Assembly, which took him prisonerPhilippe Egalite: adopted name of the Duke of Orleans, who was a cousin of Louis XVI ; who voted for the king’s executionsans-culottes: “without breeches”the Paris mob who wore long trousers, not knee breeches like the aristocratsReign of Terror: period of extreme violence during the French Revolution implemented by Robespierre & his followers to protect the Revolution & establish the Republic of VirtueRepublic of Virtue: ideal state envisioned by Robespierre where all citizens would possess high moral standards & be dedicated patriotsguillotine: a supposedly humane mode of capital punishment, it was a modernized mechanism used to decapitate over 20,000 people during the Reign of TerrorDr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin: Paris deputy & professor of anatomy who proposed a single humane mode of capital punishment involving decapitation by a simple mechanismDr. Antoine Louis: secretary of the Academy of Surgery who designed the guillotinethe Planke: beheading device used before 1400 in Germany & Flandersmandara: aka mannaiabeheading device used in Renaissance Italy during the 15th centuryScottish Maiden: only surviving example of a pre-guillotine used until 1710Tobias Schmidt: German harpsichord maker who actually built the first guillotineJacques Nicolas Pelletier: thief & assassin who was the first live prisoner publicly executed with the guillotinethe “red mass”: fanatical phrase used in reference to the executions by guillotine during the Reign of Terror”patriotic tour”: euphemistic phrase used in reference to the transporting of guillotines to rural areas of France during the Reign of TerrorVictims’ Balls: a reaction to the Reign of Terror in which the family ; friends of those executed gathered to waltz in remembrance of the deadCH 17: The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars ; Colonial Rebellion”decolonization” (p.

    378): dismantling Europe’s colonial empires; the fourth and final stage of Europe’s relations with the wider world; mid-20th centurymercantilism (p. 379): bullion measure country’s wealth; excess of exports over imports; world’s resources were limited only one nation at the expense of others, established colonies, didn’t work in realitythe factories (pp. 379-80): European trading posts in India; two major English and French trading companies existed out of these postsCouncil of the Indies (p. 380): Spain governed America; in conjunction with the crown legislated the American colonies and nominated viceroys of New Spain and peru; Political Power Flowed from the top down. audiencias (p.

    380): Each of the Spanish Viceroys were divided up into these judicial districts; corregidores (p. 380): most important local officials Spanish America; Chairs of the municipal councils; Casa de Contratacion (p. 380): “House of Trade”; located in Seville; regulated all commerce with the new worldCadiz (p. 380): only port authorized for use by ships trading with AmericaThe flota (p. 380): a fleet of commercial vessels belonging to Seville’s merchants and escorted by warships; carried merchandise from Spain to a few specified ports in America; loaded up with Gold and sent backpeninsulares (p.

    381): persons born in Spain; instrument of Charles III; allowed more control over the coloniescreoles (p. 381): persons born in colonies; treated as 2nd class citizens by the peninsularesSilesia (p. 387): Austrian province annexed; Fredrick II did this to take advantage of the death of Charles VIConvention of Westminster (p. 388): Austria aligned with French; France didn’t want to be caught b/w Prussia and Britain; was intended to prevent foreign troops from entering the Germanies, alarmed Maria TheresaSeven Years’ War (pp.

    388-9): pitted Prussia ; Britain against France ; Austria; William Pitt the Elder (pp. 388-9): British secretary of state; by siding with Prussia; helped take attention off of North America and in effect won the colonies on the plains of Germany; united colonies as no one had beforeRobert Clive (p. 389): British commander in India; opened the way for the conquest of Bengal and all IndiaTreaty of Paris (p. 389): ended Seven Years’ War; 1763; Britain won out but settled with some select locationsSugar Act, 1764 (p. 390): increase revenue by more rigorously collecting what was actually a lower tax; Stamp Act, 1765 (p. 390): tax on legal

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