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    Urban Planning Strategies & Concepts (History)

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    Henry Wright and Clarence Stein
    What two designers developed the concept of the Superblock?
    the town for the motor age
    What was the community of Radburn New Jersey know as?
    it was planned with full consideration for the automobile
    Why was Radburn New Jersey know as “the town for the motor age”?
    the city beautiful movement
    What planning movement is Daniel Burnham known for?
    white city (launched a classic revival in the usa)
    What did Daniel Burnham create on the shores of Lake Michigan?
    Kevin Lynch
    Who coined the term “The Image of the City”?
    the image of the city
    What describes how users perceive and organize space as they navigated through cities?
    Camillo Sitte
    Who wrote “City Planning According to Artistic Principles”?
    city planning according to artistic principles (Camillo Sitte)
    What principles suggested that the quality of urban space is more important than architectural form?
    Clarence Perry
    Who wrote “The Neighborhood Theory?”
    the neighborhood theory
    What theory serves as a framework to design functional, self-contained neighborhoods in industrial cities?
    ahwahnee principles
    What describes a collective vision of how urban and suburban planning should follow certain fundamental principles regarding community size, irrigation, transpiration, open space, pedestrian paths, native vegetation, water and energy use?
    Tony Garnier
    Who wrote “Une Cite Industrial?”
    Une Cite Industrial
    What urban plann suggested that functions of a city could be separated into 4 categories: leisure, industry, work and transportation (early idea of zoning)?
    Sir Ebenezer Howard
    Who wrote “Garden Cities of Tomorrow?”
    garden cities of tomorrow
    What text describes a utopian city where people lived harmoniously with nature?
    Garden City Movement
    What movement was developed out of “Garden Cities of Tomorrow?”
    Oscar Newman
    What architect proposed the “Defensible Space” concept?
    territoriality, natural surveillance, Image, Milieu (environment)
    What are the 4 factors that make a defensible space?
    Edward T Hall
    Who developed the “Personal Space” concept?
    Gardnier’s – Cite Industrielle
    What planning influence developed out of the Industrial Revolution and first introduced the idea of zoning?
    L’Enfant’s plan
    Who’s Renaissance and Baroque planning approach in Washington DC was never widely adopted but was widely praised as a major planning effort?
    Baron Haussmann
    Who’s urbanization program starts in 1852 in Paris and involved leveling entire quarters to make way for wide avenues lined with neoclassical stone buildings?
    Charleston, SC
    What US city was the first to establish a “historic district” in 1931?
    city beautiful movement
    What urban planning movement flourished in the 1890’s-1900’s with the intent of using beautification and monumental grandeur in cities to counteract the perceived moral decay of poverty stricken urban environments?
    1980’s
    In what year did New Urbanism arise?
    node
    What is a center of interest that people can enter, such as a plaza, a public square, or the intersection of paths?
    landmark
    What is a point of reference and a device for wayfinding and symbolic to identification of an area?
    district
    What describes a two dimensional area that people perceive as having a common identifying character and is critical to the sense of neighborhood?
    edge
    What linear element other than a path, forms a boundary between two districts or breaks continuity?
    contextualisum
    What term describes the belief that new buildings should be designed to harmonize with other building and elements in the vicinity?
    proxemics
    What term coined by anthropologist Edward T Hall describes the study of the spatial requirements of humans and the effects of population density on behavior, communication, and social interaction.
    proxemics
    What theory deals with issues of territoriality, spacing, and positioning between people, and how the organization of the environment can affect these issues?
    star-shaped city form
    What city type grew out of the invention of gunpowder and developed with regular spaced bastions at points around the main wall so that the entire enclosure could be defended?
    renaissance
    In city planning, what period did city planners pay more attention to aesthetics than military and defense considerations?
    renaissance
    During what period did city plans combine symmetrical order with radial layout of streets focussed on points of interest?
    renaissance and baroque
    renaissance and baroque
    Sir Christopher Wren’s plan for London after the great fire of 1666 included what two planning approaches?
    Geoges-Eugene Haussman
    Geoges-Eugene Haussman
    Who advocated for straight, arterial boulevards connecting principle historic buildings, monuments and open spaces? (Paris)
    Camillo Sitte
    Camillo Sitte
    Who, in their book “Planning According to Artistic Principles (1889),” advocated that cities be laid out on the principles of medieval towns, with curving and irregular streets?
    garden city concept
    garden city concept
    What reform movement was developed by Ebenezer Howard (1898) in response to poor living condition brought on by the Industrial Revolution?
    cite industrielle
    cite industrielle
    What city plan was developed for France in 1917 and emphasized the idea if zoning?
    gridiron system
    gridiron system
    What city planning system was used in Philadelphia in 1682 and served as the model for American planning as the West was settled?
    savannah, georgia
    savannah, georgia
    What city in 1733, using a gridiron system, planned housing around an interior square, two sides of which were reserved for public use
    Washington D.C.
    Washington D.C.
    What american city broke the gridiron planning system and was based on more Renaissance and Baroque ideas of diagonal and radial streets superimposed on a rectangular grid?
    renaissance
    During what time was urban planning considered to be intellectual, formal, and monumental with plazas, boulevards, and gardens introduced to provide open space within the city?
    precinctual
    What is the term that describes the development of classical Rome based on the gradual accumulation of self-contained building complexes?
    precinctual pattern
    What describes a growth pattern that allows development in any direction and is generally flexible, compact and efficient?
    first human settlements
    first human settlements
    greek cities
    greek cities
    roman cities
    roman cities
    earlier medieval cities
    earlier medieval cities
    later medieval cities
    later medieval cities
    renaissance cities
    renaissance cities
    baroque
    industrial revolution
    industrial revolution
    garden city concept
    garden city concept
    cite industrielle concept
    cite industrielle concept
    gridiron concept
    gridiron concept
    new town concept
    new town concept
    new urbanism
    new urbanism
    rectilinear
    circular
    radiocentric
    What are 3 typical town patterns of development?
    christopher alexander
    Who wrote ‘A Pattern Language’ and talked about “generative form” – empowered anyone to design and build at any scale?
    jane jacobs
    Who wrote ‘The Death and Life of Great American Cities’, advocated for the abolition of zoning laws and coined the phrase “eyes on the street” referring to surveillance by people?
    clarence stein and henry wright
    What two america planners were major proponents of the Garden City Movement in the USA?
    urban legibility
    According to Kevin Lynch what refers to the ease with which parts of the city can be recognized and organized into a coherent patter – it is the basis of orientation?
    imageability
    According to Kevin Lynch what quality of the environment gives it a high probability of evoking a strong image in the mind of a given observer?

    (It is a vital tool for orientation, way-finding and general well-being)

    image of the city
    According to Kevin Lynch what term describes constructing a mental picture of your environment?
    paths, edges, districts, landmarks, nodes
    According to Kevin Lynch what are the 5 elements for structuring mental images of the environment?
    territoriality, natural surveillance, image, milieu
    According to Oscar Newman what 4 factors make a defensible space?
    territoriality
    What describes the idea that one’s home is sacred – it is mine therefore i will protect it?
    natural surveillance
    According to Oscar Newman what is the link between and area’s physical characteristics and the residences’ ability to see what is happening?
    image
    What describes the capacity of the physical design to impart a sense of security?
    milieu
    According to Oscar Newman what term refers to other features that affect security, such as proximity to a police substation or busy commercial area?
    urban development diagram
    urban development diagram
    1. no major traffic arteries
    2. use cul-de-sacs, curvilinear layouts and low volume streets to preserve quiet, safe atmosphere
    3. population is about 5000
    4. neighborhood focus is elementary school
    5. density 10 families per acre and occupy 160 acres
    6. there should be shopping associated with the school and 10% of the area is open space
    What are the 6 principles developed in Clearance Perry’s Neighborhood Unit Concept?
    radburn, chandigarh, brasillia
    radburn, chandigarh, brasillia
    Name 3 examples of the superblock concept?
    reston, virginia
    What city plan was influenced by Radburn, was the first modern post war planned community and features a series of underpasses that promote travel on foot?
    broadacre city
    What city plan was developed by Frank Lloyd Wright in 1922 and featured every home situated in 1 acre parcels?
    Beaux Arts principles and Neoclassical Architecture
    What design principles did Daniel Burnham and Fredrick Olmstead follow for the World’s Columbian Exposition 1893?
    greek towns
    What were the first urban planned cities in 400 BC and used a rectangular grid pattern with large central areas which became the agora, the center of the city and society?
    finger plan
    finger plan
    Development Growth Pattern
    cluster form
    cluster form
    Development Growth Pattern
    satellite pattern
    satellite pattern
    Development Growth Pattern
    linear pattern
    linear pattern
    Development Growth Pattern
    megalopolis
    megalopolis
    Development Growth Pattern
    expanding grid/rectilinear pattern
    expanding grid/rectilinear pattern
    Development Growth Pattern
    field pattern
    field pattern
    Development Growth Pattern
    radiocentric pattern
    radiocentric pattern
    Development Growth Pattern
    star pattern
    star pattern
    Development Growth Pattern
    ring shaped
    ring shaped
    Development Growth Pattern
    sheet
    sheet
    Development Growth Pattern
    satellite
    satellite
    Development Growth Pattern
    constellation
    constellation
    Development Growth Pattern
    concentric zone pattern
    concentric zone pattern
    Patterns of Land Use
    sector pattern
    sector pattern
    Patterns of Land Use
    multiple nuclei pattern
    multiple nuclei pattern
    Patterns of Land Use

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    Urban Planning Strategies & Concepts (History). (2017, Aug 31). Retrieved from https://artscolumbia.org/urban-planning-strategies-concepts-history-14806/

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