THURGOOD MARSHALL, associate justiceMr. Civil Rights1)Life til Death:1908 – 1993(specific date insignificant)Dates on Supreme Court:1967 – 19912)Great grandfather was slave. . . Grandfather, Isaiah Williams, organized demonstrations to protest police brutality against African Americans.
. . therefore, from young age, Thurgood felt responsibility to live up to legendary deeds of ancestorsThurgood and father went to courthouse to watch white lawyers and white judges argue cases involving mostly African American defendants. . .
Father always discussed court cases at dinner table. . . Father once said that one day discrimination would be outlawed cause U. S. Constitution promised it, and he had faith in the ConstitutionGrowing up.
. . Thurgood had to use restrooms labeled “colored”1930: applied to University of Maryland Law School. .
. denied admission due to skin colorHocutt v. The University of North Carolina: Hastie (Thurgood’s professor) argued that Hocutt cannot be denied admission based upon race using 14th amendment. . this case brought about new way to fight civil rights cases.
. . this case, which Thurgood helped on, only strengthened his determination to fight injusticeThurgood lost case involving man in robbery and murder. . .
man was executed and this increased his opposition to the death penalty even moreLost Seventh grade student v. Baltimore County Board of Education: Maryland court ruled that school had right to reject student based on skin color3)Began career as counsel to Baltimore branch of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)1936:joined national legal staff1938:became Chief Legal Officer1961:JFK appoints Marshall to U. S. Court of Appeals for 2nd Circuit1965:LBJ appoints Marshall Solicitor General of U.
S. 1967:After nomination from LBJ, Marshall’s appointment to U. S. Supreme Court confirmed by 69-11 vote, opposition were Southern senators4)Liberal, whose commitment to equality expanded through the years”. .
. favored liberal, expansive holdings on constitutional rights, especially those relating to individual liberties and the rights of racial minorities. Together with Justice Brennan, whom he frequently joined in dissent, Marshall was half of the most consistently liberal pair of the recent Court. ” (Galub and Lankevich, p. 258)5)Bee not sure on this but he try. .
. Nixon, Ford, Bush, and Reagan were Republican presidents in office when Marshall was justice. . . they appointed conservative justices most of time. .
. Marshall usually wrote dissenting opinions. . .
me guess court was conservative6)William Rehnquist John Paul StevensWilliam Brennan (Marshall pal in voting most of time)Sandra Day O’ ConnerAntonin Scalia Harry Blackmun7)1935: Wins first major civil rights case, Murray v. Pearson1944:Wins Smith v. Allwright, outlaws Texas Democratic Party’s “white primary”1950:Sweatt v. Painter and McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regeants, “separate but equal” facilities for African American professionals and graduate students in state universities are unconstitutional 1954:Wins Brown v.
Board of Education of Topeka, declares racial segregation in U. S. public schools unconstitutional1972:Furman v. Georgia: did not vote with majority. .
. said eath penalty was most often against minorities and the poor1973:Roe v. Wade: voted with majority. . .
anti-abortion laws forced women to bear children who would suffer in misery and poverty1978:Regents of the University of California v. Bakke: did not vote with majority. . . favored affirmative action programs8)In the hood when Thurgood was growing up, lighter skin was better than darker skin.
. . Although his parents were mulattos and, therefore, his skin was light, he refused to take part in black-against-black prejudiceAccepted cases even if clients could not pay. . . civil rights, not money, was reason he in business”Equal means getting the same thing, at the same time and in the same place.
“William’s directions to Thurgood:”If anybody calls you a nigger, you not only got my permission to fight him – you got my orders. “First African American Solicitor General and Justice to sit on the CourtWaiter on railroad: U. S. Senator wants service and keeps calling Thurgood nigger’.
. . His father hears this and said, “Thurgood, you are a disgrace to the colored people!” Thurgood didn’t mind much because when Senator was done he left $20 tips. .
. “Any time you wanna call me nigger,’ you just put your $20 on this table. And you can keep doing it all day. But the second you run outta them 20’s, I’m gonna bust you in the nose.”9)Clarence Thomas replaced Thurgood Marshall