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The Dead Sea Scrolls (1545 words) Essay

Hum. 211
Karen Rank
Sunday, October 17, 1999
While pursuing one of his goats into a cave near the Dead Sea in the Jordan Desert, in
1947, a fifteen year old boy by the name of Muhammad adh-Dhib, stumbled on to a great
discovery. Inside the cave, he found broken jars that contained scrolls written in a strange
language, wrapped in linen cloth and leather.1 This first discovery produced seven scrolls and
started an archaeological search that produced thousands of scroll fragments in eleven caves.

The Dead Sea is located in Israel and Jordan, east of Jerusalem. The dead sea is very
deep, salty, and it’s the lowest body of water in the world. Because the dead sea is at such a low
elevation, the climate has a high evaporation rate but a very low humidity which helped to
preserve the scrolls.2
Archaeologists searched for the dwelling of the people that may have left the scrolls in
the caves. The archaeologist excavated a ruin located between the cliffs where the scrolls were
found and the dead sea. This ruin is called Qumran. The ruins and the scrolls were dated by the
carbon 14 method and found to be from the third century which made them the oldest surviving
biblical manuscript by at least 1000 years.

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Since the first discoveries archaeologists have found over 800 scrolls and scroll
fragments in 11 different caves in the surrounding area. In fact, there are about 100,000 fragments
found in all. Most of which were written on goat skin and sheep skin. A few were on papyrus, a
plant used to make paper, but one scroll was engraved on copper sheeting telling of sixty buried
treasure sites.3Because the scrolls containing the directions to the treasures is unable to be fully
unrolled, the treasures have not been found yet. In all, the texts of the scrolls were remarkable.

They contained unknown psalms, Bible commentary, calendar text, mystical texts, apocalyptic
texts, liturgical texts, purity laws , bible stories, and fragments of every book in the Old
Testament except that of Esther, including a imaginative paraphrase of the Book of Genesis. Also
found were texts, in the original languages, of several books of the Apocrypha and
Pseudepigrapha. These texts?none of which was included in the Hebrew canon of the Bible?are
Tobit, Sirach, Jubilees, portions of Enoch, and the Testament of Levi, up to this time known only
in early Greek, Syriac, Latin, and Ethiopic versions.4
John Trever of the W.F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research, was allowed to
investigate the scrolls and was stunned to find that the scrolls closely resemble the Nash Papyrus,
the once known oldest fragment of the Hebrew Bible dated at or around 150 BC. One of the
scrolls was a complete copy of the book of the prophet Isaiah. Trever also examined three other
scrolls; the Manual of Discipline, a commentary on the book of Habbakuk, and one called the
Genesis Apocryphon. Trever took photographs of the texts to William Foxwell Albright ; of John
Hopkins University in Baltimore, who declared the scrolls dated back to around 100 BC.5
The scroll and fragments found in the Qumran is a library of information that contains
books or works written in three different languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek. Many
scholars separated the scrolls into three different categories:
Biblical – Books found in the Hebrew Bible.
Apocryphal or psuedepigraphical – Works not in some Bibles but included in others.

Sectarian – ordinances, biblical commentaries, apocalyptic visions, and sacred works.6
One of the longer text, found in Qumran is the Tehillim or Psalms Scroll. It was found in
1956 in cave 11 and unrolled in 1961. It is a assortment of Psalms, hymns and an indifferent
passage about the psalms authored by King David. It is written on sheep skin parchment and it has
the thickest surface of any of the scrolls.7
The Manual Of Discipline or Community Rule contains rules, warnings and punishments
to violators of the rules of the desert sect called Yahad. It also contains the methods of joining the
community, the relations among the members, their way of life , and their beliefs. The sect
believed that human nature and all that happens in the world is predestined. The scroll ends with
songs of praise of God. The scroll was found in cave 4 and cave 5 and It was written on
parchment. The longest version was found in cave 4.8
The War Rule is commonly referred to as the ?Pierced Messiah? text. It refers to a
Messiah who came from the line of David, to be brought to a judgment and then to a killing. It
anticipates the New Testament view of the preordained death of the messiah. It is written in a
Hebrew script and is only a six line fragment.9
Most of the scrolls were found in caves near Qumran. The Qumran site was excavated to
find the habitation of those who deposited the scrolls in the nearby caves. The excavations
uncovered plates bowls and cemeteries with over twelve hundred graves that have the same
characteristics which suggest religious uniformity, along with a complex of structures which
suggested that they were communal in presentation.10 Many believe this is where a community of
a distant Jewish sect called the Essenes may have once lived. The Essenes were members of a
Jewish religious brotherhood, organized on a communal basis who practiced strict disciplines. The
order had around 4000 members and they existed in Palestine and Syria from the 2nd century BC
to the 2nd century AD. The sects main settlements were on the shores of the Dead Sea.11 In some
scholars views the site was the wilderness retreat of the Essenes. According to these scholars, the
Essenes or another religious sect resided in neighboring locations, most likely caves, tents, and
solid structures, but depended on the center for community facilities such as stores of food and
water. 12
Many scholars believe the Essene community wrote, copied, or accumulated the scrolls
at Qumran and deposited them in the caves of the neighboring hills. Others question this
explanation, claiming that the site was no monastery but rather a Roman fortress or a winter
residence. Some also believe that the Qumran site has little if anything to do with the scrolls and
the evidence available does not support a definitive answer. 13
A lapse in the use of the site is linked to evidence of a huge earthquake. Qumran was
abandoned about the time of the Roman invasion of 68 A.D.,14 two years before the collapse of
Jewish self-government in Judea and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in 70 A.D. The
scrolls are believed to have been brought from Jerusalem the Judean wilderness for safekeeping
when Jerusalem was threatened by Roman armies. This was the time that Qumran was a judean
military fortress which was destroyed in a battle with the Romans
Since their discovery, the Dead Sea Scrolls have been the subject of great scholarly and
public interest. For scholars they represent an invaluable source for exploring the nature of post-
biblical times and probing the sources of two of the world’s great religions. For the public, they
are artifacts of great significance, mystery, and drama. 15
The Dead Sea Scrolls give us a better view of a crucial period in the history of Judaism.

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Judaism was divided into numerous religious sects and political parties. With the destruction of
the Temple in 70 AD., all that came to an end. Only the Judaism of the Pharisees; the most
powerful Jewish sect–Rabbinic Judaism–survived. Qumran literature shows a Judaism in the
midst of change from the religion of Israel as described in the Bible to the Judaism of the rabbis as
explained in the Talmud, which tells the rules that Jews live by.16
Scholars have emphasized similarities between the beliefs and practices shown in the Qumran
material and those of early Christians.17 These similarities include rituals of baptism, communal
meals, and property.18 One of the most fascinating similarities is how the people divided
themselves into twelve tribes led by twelve chiefs. This is very similar to how Jesus had twelve
apostles who would sit on thrones and judge the twelve tribes of Israel. 19
The Dead Sea Scrolls were written during the birth of Christianity and an important time in
Jewish history. The scrolls have giving an insight into the lives and customs of the people who
lived in a time of Roman invasion and Jewish history. Although the text do not hold all the
answers, they do give people a tool to use when studying biblical history. Only a very few
scholars had access to the scrolls before copies of the scrolls were published in the 1990’s; now
we all have a chance to read an come to our own conclusions about the text. Whether the scrolls
uphold Jewish or Christian beliefs is not the only interesting part of the scrolls. The text also give
a more personal look at the people who lived in a major part of Jewish history.
Burrows, Millar. (1955). The Dead Sea Scrolls. New York: Grammercy Publishing Company
Roth, Cecil. (1965). The Dea Sea Scrolls. A New Historical Approach. New York: W.W.

Norton ; Company.

Schubert, Kurt . (1959). The Dead Sea Community. Great Britain: Bowering Press Plymouth.

Shanks, Hershel. (1998). The Mystery And Meaning Of The Dead Sea Scrolls. New York:
Random House.

Project Judaica Foundation, Inc.(1996-1999) .

Welcome to SCROLLS FROM THE DEAD SEA. The Ancient Library of Qumran and Modern
Scholarship, an Exhibit at the Library of Congress, Washington,DC
http://metalab.unc.edu/expo/deadsea.scrolls.exhibit/intro.html, Site design by New Connections.


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The Dead Sea Scrolls (1545 words) Essay
Hum. 211
Karen Rank
Sunday, October 17, 1999
While pursuing one of his goats into a cave near the Dead Sea in the Jordan Desert, in
1947, a fifteen year old boy by the name of Muhammad adh-Dhib, stumbled on to a great
discovery. Inside the cave, he found broken jars that contained scrolls written in a strange
language, wrapped in linen cloth and leather.1 This first discovery produced seven scrolls and
started an archaeological
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The Dead Sea Scrolls (1545 words) Essay
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