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    poem terms

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    Poetry defined
    A kind of rhythmic, compressed language that uses figures of speech and imagery designed to appeal to our emotions and imagination
    a story told in verse form; an epic is a narrative poem
    A fourteen-line lyric poem, usually written in iambic pentameter, having one of several rhyme schemes
    A fourteen-line lyric poem, usually written in iambic pentameter, having one of several rhyme schemes
    English sonnet or Shakespearean sonnet
    (14 lines) Three quatrains followed by a couplet The most common rhyme scheme for this sonnet is abab cdcd efef gg
    Italian sonnet or Petrarchan sonnet
    (14 lines) An octave, which typically rhymes abbaabba, and a sestet, which may have varying rhyme schemes. Common rhyme patterns in the sestet are cdecde, cdcdcd, and cdccdc.
    a type of poem that is meant to be sung and is both lyric and narrative in nature
    Two dissimilar things are compared using words such as “like,” “as,” “than,” or “resembles”
    Two dissimilar things are compared WITHOUT using words such as “like,” “as,” “than,” or “resembles”
    Direct metaphor
    Directly compares two things with a verb such as “is”
    Implied metaphor
    Suggests a comparison WITHOUT using “is”
    Extended metaphor
    metaphor that is developed over several lines of writing
    A kind of metaphor in which a part of something is used to signify the whole.
    Dead metaphor
    a metaphor that has become so overused that we no longer realize that is a figure of speech—we simply skip over the metaphorical connection it makes.
    Mixed metaphor
    The inconsistent mixture of two or more metaphors; a common problem in bad writing, and they can often be unintentionally funny
    Giving human or animate qualities to nonhuman or inanimate things
    Addressing something nonhuman as if it were human
    Something concrete used to represent something abstract
    Exaggeration for the sake of effect, for emphasis, not to be taken literally; overstatement
    language that appeals to the five senses. The word image perhaps most often suggests a mental picture and visual imagery is the most frequently occurring kind of imagery in poetry. But an image may also represent a sound, a smell, a taste, a tactile experience, and an internal sensation.
    Literary allusion
    A reference to a person, place, or thing from previous literature
    Saying the opposite of what is true
    Balancing or contrasting one thing against another for effect
    An apparent contradiction which proves, upon closer examination, to be true
    The repetition of the initial consonant sound in two or more words in a line of verse
    The repetition of consonant sounds that are NOT at the beginning of words in a line of verse
    The similarity or repetition of vowel sounds in two or more words with different consonant sounds
    The use of words that imitate the sounds they define
    Repeating a word or phrase within a poem
    Reasons to use:
    Pleasing to the ear
    Emphasizes idea
    Gives poem structure
    The repetition of one or more phrases or lines at definite intervals in a poem, usually at the end of a stanza
    A group of consecutive lines in a poem that form a single unit; a division of a poem that is often referred to as a “paragraph of poetry”
    Stanza Forms
    Couplet 2 line stanza
    Triplet 3 line
    Quatrain 4 line
    Quintet 5 line
    Sestet 6 line
    Septet 7 line
    Octave 8 line
    9 line stanza
    10 line stanza
    The similarity or likeness of sound in two or more words
    Perfect rhyme
    (exact rhyme) involves sounds that are exactly the same
    Imperfect rhyme
    (approximate or slant rhyme) involves words that sound similar, but are not exactly the same
    Eye rhyme
    Depends on spelling rather than sound; words that look like they should rhyme, but do not
    End rhyme
    Occurs between words found at the ends of two or more lines in a poem
    Internal rhyme
    Between words, occurs within a single one of poetry
    Rhyme scheme
    The pattern or sequence in which end rhyme occurs throughout a poem. The first end sound is represented with an “a,” the second end sound is represented with a “b,” and so on. When the first sound is repeated at the end of another line within the poem, it is also designated as “a.”
    The pattern of stressed ( ) and unstressed ( ) syllables in words in a line of poetry; rhythm may be regular or irregular
    A regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry
    A unit of meter; can consist of two or three syllables; lines of poetry are classified according to the number of feet in a line
    The process of marking lines of poetry to show the type of feet and the number of feet they contain
    Iambic foot
    A two syllable foot with the stress on the second syllable; the most common foot of the English language
    Trochaic foot
    A two syllable foot with the stress on the first syllable
    Spondaic foot
    Two stressed syllables
    Pyrric foot
    Two unstressed syllables; this type of foot is rare and is found in between other types of feet
    Anapestic foot
    Three syllables with the stress on the last syllable
    Dactylic foot
    Three syllables with the stress on the first syllable
    Metrical lines
    Monometer: 1 foot per line
    Dimeter: 2 feet per line
    Trimeter: 3 feet per line
    Tetrameter: 4 feet per line
    Pentameter: 5 feet per line
    Hexameter: 6 feet per line
    Heptameter: 7 feet per line
    Octameter: 8 feet per line
    Rhymed verse
    Consists of a verse with end rhyme and regular meter
    Blank verse
    Consists of unrhymed iambic pentameter
    Free verse
    Consists of lines of poetry that do not have a regular rhythm and do not rhyme
    The literary, dictionary definition of a word.
    Both “slender” and “skinny” have the same literal definition—”thin.”
    All the meanings, associations, or emotions that a word suggests

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