Lori is four year old, and she is at Piagets preoperational stage. According to Piagets description of the preoperational stage children, they cannot understand his conservation tasks. This preoperational stage, children can use representations (mental images, drawings, words, gestures) rather than just motor actions to think about objects and events. Thinking now is faster, more flexible and efficient, and more socially shared. Thinking is limited by egocentrism, a focus on perceptual states, reliance on appearances rather than underlying realities, and rigidity (lack of reversibility) (Flavell, miller, 1993).
The young children do not have abilities to have operations mental actions that obey logical rules. Instead, their thinking is rigid, limited to one aspect of a situation at a time, and strongly influenced by the way things appear at the moment (Berk, 1999). According to Piagetian conservation tasks, preoperational stage: 2-7 years old children lacked the knowledge to conserve. Conservation means, the understanding that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes (Berk, 1999).
Piagets test for conservation of number is described as two rows with same number of things (examples: coins, fruits, and candies that are equally spaced. Initially, young children knew these two rows had same number. If one row is shortened, children failed to notice that the two rows are the same. Piaget said young children did not realize these two rows are still the same number because they confused and did not see what adults see that help them to understand the task. Piaget said the ability to understand this task is in the face of a perceptual change, and the young child tends to be fooled by the misleading perceptual appearance (Flavell, miller, 1993). On the Piagets task for conservation of length, he described this task as showing young children the two pencils, two pens, or two sticks with the equal length and children knew they were the same length.
If showed them by moving one stick longer than the other one, they failed to know they were the same. Then Piagets task for conservation for liquid, he described this task as showing young children the same amount of water or juice in the two identical glasses and very fast they knew the two glasses of water or juice were the same. If poured one glass into a longer and thinner glass, children could not identify this glass had contained the same amount of water or juice as the original two identical glasses. According to Piagets explanation, childrens thinking is perception bound in preoperational stage and also they could not focus their attention on two aspects of the new glass, they were attentive only to one aspect which is that one glass is taller than the other two; they did not realize the taller glass had the same amount of liquid. My subject is a four-year-old girl named Lori.
She was born in California. I have known her since she was a baby. On weekends, I babysat Lori and her little brother, Mike, at my house. When Lori was about two years old, I taught her how to read a short Chinese poem. She could remember the poem without looking at it and recited in front of his parents and me. She was so curious about anything that she always had many what and why questions to ask.
I was often inspired by her because she would come toward me and gave me the biggest hug and make me felt happy. Recently her parents sent her to a child day care center to be with other children that teaches only in English and she is frightened and frustrated. Because at home, her parents spoke only Chinese to her and she didnt know any English, she felt no fun in school. I had invited her to come to my house, so I could talk to her and comforted her. Since I knew I taught her how to count and knew she had good memory, I decided to test Lori on Piagetian conservation tasks because she was so fascinating.
Lori was also very interested because she loved to play with me.My modifications in Piagets conservation tasks are as follow: first, .