Gandhi, as he was popularly called, proved that non-violence is the most effective instrument of social change. His teachings are promoted even today to avoid violence and find peaceful solutions to conflicts. Through his sheer dedication and self-belief, Gandhi freed India from the British Raja (British Rule). He proved to the world that freedom can be achieved through the path of non. Violence. For Gandhi ‘Non-violence and Truth’ were two inalienable virtues. He summed up the entire philosophy of his life as : “The only virtue I want to claim is truth and non-violence.
I lay no claim to super human powers want none”. The United Nations General Assembly announced on 15th June, 2007 that October 2nd will be celebrated as the International Day of Non-Violence. Some of the famous quotes by Mahatma Gandhi have been listed below: * Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever. ;k Fear is not a disease of the body; fear kills the soul. ;k The principle of majority does not work when differences on fundamentals are involved. * Freedom is not worth having if it does not include the freedom to make mistakes. It is better to be violent, if there is violence in our hearts, than to put on the cloak of nonviolence to cover impotence. * It is unwise to be too sure of one’s own wisdom. It is healthy to be reminded that the strongest might weaken and the wisest might err. ;k You must not lose faith in humanity. Humanity is an ocean; if a few drops of the ocean are dirty, the ocean does not become dirty. * Honest differences are often a healthy sign Of progress. * Whatever you do may be insignificant, but it is very important that you do it. O, Apostle of Peace, O, Teachers of co-operation, l, your little child, Offer you my salutation.Order now
When we think of you, We remember Truth and Non-violence, And we cherish your memories, With almost reverence. You taught us with your Charka, That India will always progress, May you give us strength, And our efforts always bless, You gave our country freedom, And gave us faith and hope, The country of your dreams will work together, As if tied by a divine rope. You, Father of this Nation, Gave our country birth, And generation to come Will hardly believe, That people such as you walked the Earth Mohammad Grammarian Gandhi (pronounced ‘grammarian @a. Dhal ( listen); 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948), commonly known as Mahatma Gandhi or Papua (Father of Nation), was the preeminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled India. Employing non-violent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for non-violence, civil rights and freedom across the world-121 Gandhi became famous by fighting for the civil rights of Muslim and Hindu Indians in South Africa, using new techniques of non-violent civil disobedience that he developed.
Returning to India in 1915, he set about organizing peasants to protest excessive land-taxes. A lifelong opponent of “communality” (i. E. Basing politics on religion) he reached out widely to all religious groups. He became a leader of Muslims protesting the declining status of the Caliphate, Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1321, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for easing poverty, expanding women’s rights, building religious and ethnic amity, ending intractability, increasing economic self-reliance, and above all for achieving Swards-?the independence of India from British domination.
Early life Mohammad Grammarian Gandhi was born on 2 October 1869 in Paperboard, a coastal town which was then part of the Bombay Presidency, British India. His father, Grammarian Gandhi (1822-1885), served as the dawn (chief minister) of Provender state, a small princely salute state in the Stairway Agency of British India. 1 His grandfather was Transcend Gandhi, also called Tutu Gandhi. In May 1883, the 13-year-old Mohammad was married to 14-year-old Austria Making (her first name was usually shortened to “Stature”, and affectionately to “Bal’) in an arranged child marriage, according to the custom of the region. ALL] In the process, he lost a year at school. Recalling the day of their marriage, he once said, “As we didn’t know much about marriage, for us it meant only wearing new clothes, eating sweets and playing with relatives. ” However, as was prevailing tradition, the adolescent bride was to spend much time at her parents’ house, and away from her husband. 2] In 1885, even Gandhi was 15, the couple’s first child was born, but survived only a few days. Sandhog’s father, Grammarian Gandhi, had also died earlier that year. The religious background was eclectic. Sandhog’s father was Hindu Made Banana and his mother was from Prename Visional family. Religious figures were frequent visitors to the home. Mohammad and Stature had four more children, all sons: Harlan, born in 1888; Minimal, born in 1892; Ramada, born in 1897; and Devils, born in 1900. 1201 At his middle school in Paperboard and high school in Ratio, Gandhi remained mediocre student.
He shone neither in the classroom nor on the playing field. One of the terminal reports rated him as “good at English, fair in Arithmetic and weak in Geography; conduct very good, bad handwriting,” He passed the matriculation exam at Smalls College in Vinegar, Gujarat, with some difficulty. Sandhog’s family wanted him to be a barrister, as it would increase the prospects of succeeding to his father’s post. Gandhi] ( listen); 2 October 1869 -? 30 January 1948), commonly known as Mahatma Gandhi or Papua (Father of Nation), was the preeminent leader of Indian
Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for non-violence, civil rights and freedom across the world Education The son of a senior government official, Gandhi was born and raised in a Banana community in coastal Gujarat, and trained in law in London. Gandhi became famous by fighting for the civil rights of Muslim and Hindu Indians in South Africa, using nevi techniques Of non-violent civil disobedience that he developed. Returning to India in 1915, he set about organizing peasants to protest excessive land-taxes. A lifelong opponent Of “communality” (i. E. Assign politics on religion) e reached out widely to all religious groups. He became a leader of Muslims protesting the declining Status Of the Caliphate. Assuming leadership Of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for easing poverty, expanding women’s rights, building religious and ethnic amity, ending Swards-?the independence of India from British domination In 1888, Gandhi traveled to London, England, to study law at university College London, where he studied Indian law and jurisprudence and to train as a barrister at the Inner Temple.
His time in London was influenced by a vow he had made to his mother pond leaving India, in the presence to again monk, to observe the precepts of abstinence from meat and alcohol as well as of promiscuity. 128] Gandhi tried to adopt “English” customs, including taking dancing lessons. However, he could not appreciate the bland vegetarian food offered by his landlady and was frequently hungry until he found one of Loon’s vegetarian restaurants. Influenced by Henry Salt’s writing, he joined the Vegetarian Society, was elected to its executive committee, and started a local Backwater chapter. 16] Some of the vegetarians he met oeuvre members of the Theosophical Society, which had en founded in 1875 to further universal brotherhood, and which was devoted to the study of Buddhist and Hindu literature. They encouraged Gandhi to join them in reading the Baghdad Gait both in translation as well as in the original. 129] Not having shown interest in religion before, he became interested in religious thought. Gandhi was called to the bar in June 1891 and then left London for India, where he learned that his mother had died While he was in London and that his family had kept the news from him. 291 His attempts at establishing a law practice in Bombay failed because he was too shy to speak up in court. He returned to Ratio to make a modest living drafting petitions for litigants, but he was forced to close it when he ran afoul off British In 1893, he accepted a year-long contract from Dada Abdullah ; Co an Indian firm, to a post in the Colony of Natal, South Africa, then part of the British Empire. IN THE DARK CONTINENT Civil rights movement in South Africa (1893-1914) Gandhi was 24 when he arrived in South Africa] to work as a legal representative for the Muslim Indian Traders based in the city of Pretoria. 31] He spent 21 years in South Africa, where he developed his political views, ethics and lattice leadership skills. Purported photograph of Gandhi in South Africa (1895) Indians in South Africa were led by wealthy Muslims, who employed Gandhi as a lawyer, and by impoverished Hindu indentured laborers with very limited rights. Gandhi considered them all to be Indians, taking a lifetime view that “Indians” transcended religion and caste. He believed he could bridge historic differences, especially regarding religion, and he took that belief back to India Where he tried to implement it.
The South African experience exposed handicaps to Gandhi that he had not known about. He realized he was out Of contact With the enormous milestones of religious and cultural life in India, and believed he understood India by getting to know and leading Indians in South Africa. In South Africa, Gandhi faced the discrimination directed at all colored people. He was thrown off a train at Pittsburghers after refusing to move from the first-class. He protested and was allowed on first class the next day. He suffered other hardships on the journey as well, including being barred from several hotels. In another incident, the magistrate of a Durban court ordered Gandhi to remove his turban, which he refused to do. These events were a turning point in Sandhog’s elite and shaped his social activism and awakened him to social injustice. After witnessing racism, prejudice and injustice against Indians in South Africa, Gandhi began to question his place in society and his people’s standing in the British Empire,ALL] Gandhi extended his original period of stay in South Africa to assist Indians in opposing a bill to deny them the right to vote.
In regards to this bill Gandhi sent out a memorial o Joseph Chamberlain, British Colonial Secretary, asking him to reconsider his position on this bill. Though unable to halt the bill’s passage, his campaign was successful in drawing attention to the grievances of Indians in South Africa. He helped found the Natal Indian Congress in and through this organization, he molded the Indian community of South Africa into a unified political force. In January 1897, when Gandhi landed in Durban, a mob Of White settlers attacked him and he escaped only through the efforts of the wife Of the police superintendent.
He, however, refused to press charges against NY member of the mob, stating it was one of his principles not to seek redress for a personal wrong in a court of law- In 1906, the Transvaal government promulgated a new Act compelling registration of the colony’s Indian population. At a mass protest meeting held in Johannesburg on 1 1 September that year, Gandhi adopted his still evolving methodology of Straight (devotion to the truth), or non-violent protest, for the first time. He urged Indians to defy the new law and to suffer the punishments for doing so.
The community adopted this plan, and during the ensuing seven-year struggle, thousands to Indians were jailed, flogged, or shot for striking, refusing to register, for burning their registration cards or engaging in other torts to non-violent resistance. The government successfully repressed the Indian protesters, but the public outcry over the harsh treatment of peaceful Indian protesters by the South African government forced South African leader Jan Christiana Smuts, himself a philosopher, to negotiate a compromise with Gandhi.
Sandhog’s ideas took shape, and the concept of Straight matured during this struggle. Gandhi and the Africans Gandhi in South Africa (1909) Gandhi focused his attention on Indians while in South Africa and opposed the idea that Indians should be treated at the same level as native Africans while in South He also stated that he believed “that the white race of South Africa should be the predominating After several treatments he received from Whites in South Africa, Gandhi began to change his thinking and apparently increased his interest in politics. 43] White rule enforced strict segregation among all races and generated conflict between these communities. Banana and Evaded argue that Gandhi, at first, shared racial notions prevalent Of he times and that his experiences in jail sensitizes him to the plight of blacks. During the Boer War Gandhi volunteered in 1900 to form a group of ambulance drivers, He wanted to disprove the British idea that Hindus were not fit for “manly” activities involving danger and exertion.
Gandhi raised eleven hundred Indian volunteers, They were trained and medically certified to serve on the front lines. At Spoon Kop Gandhi and his bearers had to carry wounded soldiers for miles to a field hospital because the terrain was too rough for the ambulances, Gandhi was pleased when someone said that European ambulance corpsmen loud not make the trip under the heat without food or water, General Readers Bullet mentioned the courage of the Indians in his dispatch.
Gandhi and thirty seven other Indians received the War Medal. ALLS In 1906, the British declared war against the Zulu Kingdom in Natal, Gandhi encouraged the British to recruit Indians_ASS] He argued that Indians should support the war efforts in order to legitimate their claims to full citizenship. The British accepted Sandhog’s offer to let a detachment of 20 Indians volunteer as a stretcher-bearer corps to treat wounded British soldiers. This corps was commanded by Gandhi and operated or less than two months. 46] The experience taught him it was hopeless to directly challenge the overwhelming military power of the British army-?he decided it could only be resisted in non-violent fashion by the pure Of heart. After the black majority came to power in South Africa, Gandhi was proclaimed a national hero With numerous monuments. SANDHOG’S METHODS AND DIRECTIONS STRAIGHT Salt Straight (Salt March) Main article: Salt Straight Original footage of Gandhi and his followers marching to Danni in the Salt Straight Gandhi stayed out of active politics and, as such, the limelight for cost of the 19205.
He focused instead on resolving the wedge between the Swards Part/ and the Indian National Congress, and expanding initiatives against intractability, alcoholism, ignorance and poverty. He returned to the fore in 1928. In the preceding year, the British government had appointed a new constitutional reform commission under Sir John Simon, which did not include any Indian as its member. The result a boycott of the commission by Indian political parties.
Gandhi pushed through a resolution at the Calcutta Congress in December 1928 calling on the British government to grant India dominion tutus or face a new campaign of non-cooperation with complete independence for the country as its goal. Gandhi had not only moderated the views of younger men like Scubas Chancre Bose and Charlatan Nehru, who sought a demand for immediate independence, but also reduced his own call to a one year wait, instead of two. The British did not respond. On 31 December 1929, the flag Of India was unfurled in Lahore. 6 January 1930 was celebrated as Indian’s Independence Day by the Indian National Congress meeting in Lahore. This day was commemorated by almost every other Indian organization. Gandhi hen launched a new Straight against the tax on salt in March 1930. This was highlighted by the famous Salt March to Danni from 12 March to 6 April, where he marched 388 kilometers (241 mi) from Metadata to Danni, Gujarat to make salt himself. Thousands of Indians joined him on this march to the sea. This campaign was one of his most successful at upsetting British hold on India; Britain responded by imprisoning over 60,000 people. 83] Struggle for Indian Independence (1915-47) See also: Indian independence movement In 1915, Gandhi returned to India permanently. He brought an international petition as a leading Indian nationalist, theorist and organizer He joined the Indian National Congress and was introduced to Indian issues, politics and the Indian people primarily by Copal Krishna Goaled. Goaled was a key leader of the Congress Party best known for his restraint and moderation, and his insistence on working inside the System.
Gandhi took Goalie’s liberal approach based on British Waggish traditions and transformed it to make it look wholly Indian. Gandhi took leadership Of Congress in 1920 and began a steady escalation of demands (with intermittent compromises or pauses) until on 26 January 1930 the Indian National Congress declared the independence Of India. The British did not recognize that and more negotiations ensued. With Congress taking a role in provincial government in the late asses. Gandhi and Congress withdrew their support of the Raja when the Viceroy declared war on Germany in September 1939 without consulting anyone.
Tensions escalated until Gandhi demanded immediate independence in 1942 and the British responded by imprisoning him and tens of thousands of Congress leaders for the duration. Meanwhile the Muslim League did cooperate with Britain and moved, against Sandhog’s strong opposition, to demands for a totally separate Muslim state of Pakistan. In August 1947 the British partitioned the land, with India and Pakistan each achieving independence on terms Gandhi disapproved. Role in World War I See also: The role of India in World War In April 1918, during the latter part of World War I, the Viceroy invited Gandhi to a War Conference in Delhi. 51] Perhaps to show his support for the Empire and help his case for Indian’s Gandhi agreed to actively recruit Indians for the war effort. In contrast to the Zulu War of 1306 and the outbreak of World War in 1914, when he recruited volunteers for the Ambulance Corps, this time Gandhi attempted to recruit combatants. In a June 1918 leaflet entitled “Appeal for Enlistment”, Gandhi wrote “To bring about such a state of things eve should have the ability to defend ourselves, that is, the ability to bear arms and to use them. Ђћlife Vaunt to learn the use Of arms with the greatest possible dispatch, it is our duty to enlist ourselves in the He did, however, stipulate in a letter to the Viceroy’s private secretary that he “personally will not kill or injure anybody, friend or Sandhog’s war recruitment aiming brought into question his consistency on nonviolence as his friend Charlie Andrews confirms, “Personally I have never been able to reconcile this with his own conduct in other respects, and it is one of the points where have found myself in painful disagreement, “[561 Sandhog’s private secretary also had acknowledged that “The question of the consistency between his creed of ‘Aims’ (non-violence) and his recruiting campaign was raised not only then but has been discussed ever Champaign and Qaeda Main article: Champaign and Qaeda Straight Gandhi in 1918, at the time of the Qaeda and Champaign Satyriasis Sandhog’s iris major achievements came in 1918 with the Champaign and Qaeda agitations of Briar and Gujarat, The Champaign agitation pitted the local peasantry against their largely British landlords who were backed by the local administration. The peasantry was forced to grow Indigo, a cash crop whose demand had been declining over two decades, and were forced to sell their crops to the planters at a fixed price.
Unhappy with this, the peasantry appealed to Gandhi at his ashram in Metadata. Pursuing a strategy of non-violent protest, Gandhi took the administration by surprise and won concessions from the In 1918, Qaeda was hit by floods and famine and the peasantry was demanding relief from taxes. Gandhi moved his headquarters to organizing scores of supporters and fresh volunteers from the region, the most notable being Bilharzias Patella. Losing non. Cooperation as a technique, Gandhi initiated a signature campaign where peasants pledged non-payment of revenue even under the threat of confiscation of land. A social boycott of mallards and dilators (revenue officials within the district) accompanied the agitation.
Gandhi worked hard to win public support for the agitation across the country. For five months, the administration refused but finally in end-May 1918, the Government gave way on important provisions and relaxed the conditions of payment of revenue tax until the famine ended. In Qaeda, Valhalla Patella represented the farmers in negotiations with the British, who suspended revenue collection and released all the Skillful movement In 1919 Gandhi, with his weak position in Congress, decided to broaden his base by increasing his appeal to Muslims, The opportunity came from the Skillful increment, a worldwide protest by Muslims against the collapsing status of the Caliph, the leader of their religion.
The Ottoman Empire had lost the World War and was dismembered, as Muslims feared for the safety of the holy places and the prestige of their Although Gandhi did not originate the All- India Muslim which directed the movement in India, he soon became its most prominent spokesman and attracted a strong base of Muslim support with local chapters in all Muslim centers in India. His success made him Indian’s first national leader With a multicultural base and facilitated his rise to power within Congress, which had previously been unable to reach many Muslims. In 1920 Gandhi became a major leader in By the end f 1922 the Skillful movement had collapsed. Non-cooperation Main article: Non-cooperation movement Mahatma Gandhi spinning yarn, in the late asses With Congress now behind him in 1920, Gandhi had the base to employ non- operation, non-violence and peaceful resistance as his “weapons” in the struggle against the British Raja. His wide popularity among both Hindus and Muslims made his leadership possible; he even convinced the extreme faction of Muslims to support peaceful non-cooperation. The spark that ignited a national protest was overwhelming anger at the Clinically Bag massacre (or Amorists massacre) of hundreds of peaceful civilians by British troops in Punjab.
Many Britons celebrated the action as needed to prevent another violent uprising similar to the Rebellion of 1857, an attitude that caused many Indian eaters to decide the Raja was controlled by their enemies. Gandhi criticized both the actions of the British Raja and the retaliatory violence of Indians. He authored the resolution offering condolences to British civilian victims and condemning the riots which, after initial opposition in the party, was accepted following Sandhog’s emotional speech advocating his principle that all violence was evil and could not be justified. During this period, Gandhi claimed to be a “highly orthodox Hindu” and in January 1921 during a speech at a temple in Avatar, he spoke of the relevance of non-cooperation to Hindu Dharma, “At this holy place, declare, if you want to protect your ‘Hindu Dharma’, non- cooperation is first as well as the last lesson you must learn Substrata Ashram, Sandhog’s home in Gujarat In December 1921, Gandhi was invested with executive authority on behalf of the Indian National Congress. Under his leadership, the Congress was reorganized with a new constitution, with the goal of Swards_ Membership in the party was penned to anyone prepared to pay a token fee. A hierarchy of committees was set up to improve discipline, transforming the party from an elite organization to one of mass national appeal. Gandhi expanded his non-violence platform to include the Swedish policy-?the boycott of foreign-made goods, especially British goods. Linked to this was his advocacy that shady (homespun cloth) be worn by all Indians instead of British-made textiles.