Among these, Korean Managua paintings are outstanding with its concept of ‘Eight characters of cardinal Confucian virtues’ Boy-Jew Managua. The beginning of Managua paintings in Korea dates back to the 17th century, which raters to Korean ruling dynasty Ye and so called late Jones period (1392 – 1910), In those times, they were performed exclusively in royal palaces and houses of nobles. Approximately from second half of 18th century, they become popular also among middle-class society and over next three centuries naturally developed in both, concept and form.
From some point of view, folk (devastated’) Managua paintings were not even treated as It as more handcraft, which had also its proper function – especially in case of ‘good fortune’ or ‘congratulating’ Managua – to guarantee wealth and health Of its owner and his household. Even though aesthetic expression was evaluated, contains and sense Of the picture was unless important. As for art history, Korean Managua paintings were “discovered” in ties of 20th century, together With Other Korean handcrafts and former “low-class arts”.
They are typical example of Korean “seeking for its own traditions” in the intentional movement of rebuilding and discovering Korean culture as official policy of president Park Chunk-huh. Managua were systematically collected, displayed and presented as traditional and typical Korean arts. Biggest collections of Managua are in Ho. Am museum in Seoul and in private gallery of Moon’s university, near Achaean. Lentil now, the tradition of Managua paintings is still alive. During various festivals or in particular social places like railway stations or markets, street Managua painters are still seen performing their arts.
They are calligraphers, who use special “rainbow” tool to write Managua, which they decorate with particular symbols, according to character’s meaning, like flowers or animals either by hand r stamp. In this paper, I will try to make a short introduction to Korean ‘Managua phenomenon’, trace its historical background, define its place among other folk paintings and official paintings, describe and classify it, will follow mansards conceptual and formal changes, as they were applied, in tact, until present.
Main part of this paper will focus on comparison of Korean paintings to former Chinese Managua, pinpointing main differences between Korean and Chinese concept. Will try to characterize elements, Which are typically Chinese and depict Korean ones. Also, I intend to explain, why do think that Korean Managua would be considered as Arts that is much more ‘Korean’ than any Other. Before talking about Korean Managua paintings, would like to underline the fact, that (according to my knowledge), there are only very sporadic materials on this theme available in English or in other non-Asian languages.
Moreover, Korean publications seem to observe and classify this phenomenon usually from the similar ‘-what see-‘ describing point of view. Because of my interest in Korean Folk (peasant) paintings and particularly in Managua, I feel honored to be given an opportunity to recall attention to these remarkable paintings and possibly to tire up an interest on it among wider public. Minima of middle and late Jones period The terms ‘minima’ can be defined as paintings performed by “unofficial” artists, who painted them on various occasions and for various purposes.
Besides paintings with rather decorative “function”, there were minima performed on the occasion of various feasts and festivals, exorcist minima (opposes minima; – to protect household of the owner from bad spirits and evils and on the contrary – ‘good fortune’ or ‘congratulatory minima (kobo minima, which were supposed to bring a good luck to owner’s household. Ii In hierarchical Jones society, culture and arts were measures to distinguish social classes and to show one’s social position.
In Other words, those, Who belonged to upper social class, were motivated to show it off with decorating their household With particular artistic Objects. Naturally, louver class tried to imitate high class pattern and that is, how Managua became “social classes through” paintings. Important factor of minima spread were immense structural changes of Jones society undertaken in 18th and 19th century. As seen in literature of the period (especially Punjab sole – satirical novels), the wide parade of noble titles, such as yang was typical phenomenon of the period. Ii In general, as in 18th century, economic situation of the country improved and living standard rose, it caused new diversion of social classes (especially middle class) and gave a new impulse to art production. Minima character and painters In the 18th and 19th century, even decorative paintings had particularly fixed form. In aristocracy houses, paintings ever purchased from painters educated in Royal (official) office for paintings or from those painters’ followers. However, paintings in middle-class houses ever usually painted by local artists.
In general, Korean art-historians comprehend such paintings masters as nameless painters – vagabonds, who ever wandering around the country and when they were given a job, stayed for certain period of time and painted. However, according to recent research of Mr.. Yon chief of Shadowing museum, this understanding is wrong. Mr.. Yon spent over 20 years researching folk paintings’ origins; especially he concentrated on painters of Managua. For his research, he chose the region Of Dong-ha Swansong, Gangway province, where he found most traces on former Managua painters. According to Mr..
Yon, it is possible to agonize Managua paintings authors by not only observing and distinguishing painting and artists’ taste, painting’s topic and painting dates but also artists’ stamp, which can be found on some pictures. As suggested in his breaking new approach, only in Swansong province, there existed painters – “professionals”, who painted their pieces according to customers order, but at the same time, they elevated their followers, teaching them drawing. As for Mr.. Yen’s research in Swansong, the “oldest’ Managua painter he was able to trace is Beaker Yon-soon(F who lived between 1680 and 1741.
However, in the most cent theses, Mr.. Yon analyzes housemaid mainly by Yeomen Lee Guy- Soaking(puff) Hang Lee and other Swansong area painters. He tries to trace very complex tree of links and relation-ships between that area Managua painters, pointing out the most outstanding masters, whose paintings were followed by pupils. On the other hand, the most recent recognized painter is considered Mr.. Beyond e), who died in 1960. Classification and definition Of Managua Among Korean Managua, there exist various types Of paintings With numerous themes. A special group of paintings are Managua of eight Confucian virtues’ (? -e-?he).
Another large group represents ‘Good fortune Managua’ (715} etc. Other ?), such as Paintings of hundreds ‘Lucks’ and ‘Longevity’ paintings depict characters of mystical/ legendary animals, such as dragon, tiger and turtle. There are also paintings with characters of Imitable bodhisattva etc. Among these Managua ‘types’, ho. Jew Managua are represented the most often, that is why, I will pay to them particular attention. Ho-Jew Managua is in fact a collection of eight pictures, displaying eight characters of cardinal Confucian virtues. They summarize Confucian moral codex and being exposed; remind it to their admirers.
Usually, these pictorial ideographs were displayed on eight- panels folding screens, but sometimes also separately. For example, Ho – filial piety – is considered the cornerstone of the Confucian ethical system, and thus, pictures such as this one might have hung on the walls of children’s rooms as a visual form of character education. It is known, that in middle and late Jones, people were educated in Confucian moral codex and had an awareness of it since early childhood. V Thus, they used to know exposed characters’ meaning Displayed characters of Confucian virtues were: Ho (Z Filial piety Jew (Ill, Love among siblings
Chunk (, 58): Loyalty Shin (?1, E): Trust Ye (01, Propriety Ii (IQ, Righteousness Yeomen (g, Integrity Chi (XSL, b): Humility. There exist numerous stories and parable stories related to the meaning of each character. So called Seasoning (PEACH, introduce us to some Of those stories. Thus, legendary persons, animals and objects from ancient stories create, together with character itself, a composition of Ho. Jew Managua paintings. On the other hand, Managua of ‘Good Fortune’ or ‘Congratulatory’ Managua are paintings of ‘fortunate’ characters, such as happiness – book (X, K), longevity – us (t, 5) etc.
Similar characters were used also for decorating ceramics, furniture and other properties to daily use. Paintings’ structure and its varieties from 17th to late 19th century Paintings’ composition and expression means gradually changed since Managua paintings were introduced to Jones Korea. In general, Korean Art historians divide a development of Managua paintings to three phases: Early Stage (late 17th century and the beginning Of 18th century), when Korean Managua are defined as paintings with recognizable shape of characters.
They were composed Of one large character, Which was decorated With drawings paintings) inside its strokes. This picture form was typical for Chinese ‘good fortune’ Managua. Drawings in strokes referred to stories related to character’s meaning. Often. Strokes were studded with small red circles with tiny characters inside. From the second half of 18th century, in continental Korea Managua undertook remarkable changes. Via process of gradual enlarging of decoration patterns in and on (surrounding) character strikes, there was developed magnificent formal change.
Decorative symbols itself substituted whole strikes of character. Usually, there were substituted only one or vivo strikes of each hereafter, possibly to preserve readable shape of it. Vii In Korean literature, Managua of this period are considered as “dynamic and free style paintings”. Viii In the 19th century, another remarkable thing has changed, Due to copying to Managua and its performing by rural (peasant) painters, Managua originally referred as ‘official high arts’ became so called low-class arts, Fortunately, brilliant mastery of those paintings was preserved.
Approximately by this time, paintings of characters began being completed with paintings of landscape (sensual, 451, paintings of birds and animals (Hemingway, and there types of painting. It means that composition of painting has completely changed! Character itself was not a unique motive of picture any more, but became regular part of composition. Character and landscape (animals/birds; literates tools) were often completed with calligraphic text of poem, but more often of related gaseousness Del) explanation. This period is generally considered as Korean mansard’s golden age.
As for Managua dated back to late period – the end Of 19th and the beginning Of 20th century, they are generally considered as stylistically declined and of less craftsmanship. Decorative datives and character are much stylized and simplified, even abstract. Sometimes, character and particular symbols are hardly readable. Moreover, in accompanying composition disappeared landscape painting. Even colors are not as brilliant and sparkling, like they were during the middle ‘golden age’ period. However, even these paintings preserved those days’ performers’ free mind spirit and artistic expression with its naivety and simplicity.
Approximately at the end of 19th century, there were invented new ‘brushes’, appointed particularly for writing decorative calligraphy, These brushes were dad of leather and let painter perform his character painting directly in color. Former ink calligraphy made with this method is called bike (HI g, Color calligraphy, which is performed until recent times, is called houseflies (q, Characters meaning To complete an introduction to Managua phenomenon, it is necessary to mention patterns and symbols depicted to decorated character paintings.
As was said above, most of them come from ancient Chinese legends related to Confucian moral codex. However, in case of ‘good fortune’ Managua, they refer to general East Asian symbolism. To keep this paper short, will mention just few examples Of most popular patterns Of first Ho-Jew Managua characters: Ho – filial piety. Ho is one Of the most popular characters in Korea as well as in China. There are many stories and soaks of filial piety in Chinese history. Symbols in ‘ho’ character refer to stories: -King Sun and coming Before the king Sun became a man, often he was hit by his father, stepmother, brothers and sisters.
Despite of that, he had a strong feeling of filial piety. When he turned adult, he left the family and went to Yaks Mountains to cultivate Leeds, hunt and fire ceramics. Everywhere Sun came and whatever he did had a great success and that is why people started to follow him. Soon, he gained popularity and support of whole country, including those times sovereign You. Sun loved music, That is why, sovereign YOU, when giving him his two daughters, gave him also five-string lyre. It is said, that Sun liked to enjoy a play on it. -Wang Sang and carp: Wang Sang was a man coming from state called Jinn.
In severe winter, his sick stepmother desired to eat a carp. Wang Sang broke an ice with axe, took his clothes off and was about to jump into a lake. It is said, that suddenly, two carps jumped from the hole -Management *and bamboo: Management was a man coming from state Www. One day in severe winter, he heard his sick mother saying, she wishes to eat a bamboo sprout. So he went to the bamboo field, covered with snow and as he could not find any bamboo, he started crying& It is said, that suddenly, a bamboo sprout grew from his tears fallen on the ground. -Hang Hang (-get, and fan Hang Hang was a man from the period of Late Han.
He is remembered for his extreme devotion to his parents. After his mother died, he took care of his father. In summer, he would cool father’s bedclothes With folding fan and during the cold winter days he would keep in warm with his own body. -Yuk Cheek and mandarin orange Yuk Cheek was a man coming from state Www. In age of six, he met Won Soul t. If. By that time, he had three precious oranges hidden in his blouse. When he started to bow, oranges rolled down from his blouse. Monk Won Soul asked him, why he hid those oranges. Yuk Cheek replied he saved if for his mother..
As will be explained below, Koreans used, unlike in Chinese, particular things figuring in those stories, such as carp or bamboo sprout, In China, such symbols eave different connotations, and that is why in Chinese Managua were depicted particular heroes of those stories, Managua paintings – comparing to Chinese Managua Many Korean publications that observe Managua phenomenon logically focus mainly on Korean Managua_ As for tracing its historical background, they usually note that Korean Managua were “derived from China” or ‘Were under Chinese influence in its early stage”. X In following, Will try to pinpoint main differences between Chinese and Korean Managua and explain, why Korean paintings have a very unique role among Other East Asian Managua. In China, Managua become popular in relation with a great development of city culture of the Sung Dynasty (960 1279). Towns become economically strong and their citizens were getting used to life in comfort. Surrounded with decorative articles.
On various occasions, mainly on New Year, they used to donate to each other colorful pictures of classical characters, with painted strokes. These were stuck on gates of houses and should certify longevity, happiness, wealth and affluence to house’s residents. When comparing Korean and Chinese Managua, one should note an important formal gap. In most cases, Chinese Managua were not painted with rush on paper, but printed from colored woodblocks.
That is why they could have been printed in series and used as “posters” to be attached on various places or as talisman to bring a good luck to its owner,x In addition, among Chinese Managua simply do not exist collections to pictures depicting eight Confucian moral virtues like Korean Ho-Jew-chunk-shin-yea-ui-yeomen-chi are, These collections are a specialty of Korean Managua and should be considered as something, what was composed and developed uniquely in Korea.
Despite the invention of character decorating was Chinese; Jones painters developed memorably different composition of it and performed it in different way for different purpose. As said above, Ho-Jew-chunk-shin-yea-ui-yeomen-chi collections used to be usually performed on panels of folding screens unlike in China, where folding screens were a domain of landscape paintings. Another gap between Chinese and Korean Managua inheres in different use of symbols related to particular characters. Interesting is, that symbols of Confucian virtues and motives Of longevity, good fortune etc. Hat are related to ancient Chinese legends are expressed with different symbols than in China. The point is that in China, legends related to Confucian virtue were depicted With heroes Of those stories themselves, but not with coincidentally chosen symbols. That is why in Chinese Managua character strokes are fulfilled With tens Of human figures – ancient legends’ heroes. In China, attributes such as fan or bamboo were much attached to popular figures of Taoist immortals and only rarely were used in other connotations.
This is to explain that Koreans took from Chinese legends some articles (possibly by chance) and promoted it to the symbol of particular story. This is more surprising, when one can be sure, that Koreans knew well lassie Chinese symbolism and its use. Xi Comparing Korean Managua to Chinese ones, the most noticeable progress, which Jones painters did, was replacing whole strokes to character by particular symbols related to character’s meaning, This is typical mainly for ‘Ho-Jew mansard, approximately from second half of 18th century.
In case of first ‘ho’ character, there are usually two strikes replaced: one with a carp and the other with bamboo sprout. In painting, there is also depicted fan and coming. All these symbols are things that are mentioned in popular ancient Chinese legends (or soaks) related to “filial piety theme. Conclusion To conclude previous, Korean Managua certainly are a very special type Of paintings, With their roots in China.
However, soon after Managua were introduced to Korea, they became immensely different from their Chinese ‘ancestors’ and in its expressively became very Korean. On the background Of comparison with Chinese ones, I tried to find and define several specifics of Korean Managua. However, because of limited access to specialized literature, just depicted the most obvious and possibly known issues. Korean Managua is definitely a great phenomenon, which can be observed and interpreted from verse points of view, That is why it could be a great theme for researchers.