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In one of the biggest losses in American history, Essay

Pearl Harbor stillstands for the sudden and deliberate attack the Japanese made on the Island
of Oahu in Hawaii on December 7th 1941. Everyone still remembers this day
in history as the only surprise attack on the United States.How come
this attack came without any knowledge to the U.S? Was there any
information regarding the involvement of a Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor?
One of the main questions; was the information deliberately withheld from
the Commanders in the Pacific Fleet? Many speculate but no one has
answered this question to the fullest. Only different facts and views are
given to help with this answer.

The start of this controversy started in 1900 when Secretary of State
John Hay made two notes known as the Open Door Policy. The first not was
to provide equal access to commercial right in China for all nations. The
second said for all countries to respect China’s “territorial and
administrative” integrity. In 1922 the restatement of the Open Door policy
came onto the Nine Power Treaty agreeing to assist China in forming a
stable government. Japan supported the agreements because of worldwide
economic stability this would take a turn for the worst as a worldwide
depression would reach in 1931. Japan was now looking to expand there
political and economic influence on China as on Sept 18th 1931 the Japanese
army over-ran Chinese troops stationed in South Manchuria. The League of
Nations condemned Japan’s actions and the Japanese withdrew from the
League. President of the United States Franklin Roosevelt specifically
announced that there would be no U.S. involvement in any military action
not in the U.S. Then in 1937 a full scale battle broke out between Japan
and China which in-turn China receiving only nonmilitary aide from the U.S.

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This then involved many conflicts between the U.S. and Japan regarding the
involvement of U.S. in any stature. Japan, Germany and Italy signed the
Tripartite Treaty on Sept 1940. Under that treaty war with Japan, meant
with Germany and Italy. Many pressures increased on Japan when the United
States froze of all Japanese assets and trade with the U.S., Great Britain,
and the Netherlands, the extension of financial and military aid to China
in concert with Great Britain and the Netherlands which started early in
1941. Then more pressure came upon the Japanese when Roosevelt gave
unmistakable evidence that he was not worried about the Pacific Fleets
effects upon Japanese diplomatic decisions when he authorized the weakening
of the fleet, already inferior to that of Japan by the detachment of 3
battleships, 1 Aircraft carrier, 4 light cruisers and 18 destroyers for
duty in the Atlantic. A movement in which Japanese spies in Hawaii would
certainly notice. U.S. Cryptanalyst had much success in reading code used
by the Japanese. At the same time Japanese Cryptanalysts also had success
in reading our code involving movement in our Fleets. At this point you
would suppose a military act against the U.S. in some way.Maybe not a
specific threat (Location, time ect.) but would cause an alert for military
to be “on guard” for a military movement against the United States by the
Japanese. Meaning not weakening forces in the Pacific leaving Pearl Harbor
an open area for attack. Roosevelt also knew from ongoing treaty tries
with the Japanese that this was the “last straw with the Japs.” Also pure
evidence that the attack was happening when Ambassador Grew a political
analyst in Tokyo overheard a conversion with diplomatic leaders that there
will be an attack on Pearl Harbor. At first we did not know if there would
be an attack, or where or where. Now we have evidence that it will happen.

Roosevelt still refused and Japanese involvement because of specific
details that were excluded from Grew’s statement. Obviously we had
information regarding an attack on Pearl Harbor. Some say President
Roosevelt withheld information from Admiral Kimmel, the Pacific Fleets
commander, so that an attack would inevitably bring U.S. into a war with
the Japanese. The attack would then be a prelude to the defeat of the Axis

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With all this information and facts coming into retrospect, the attack
happened, we had information, and Roosevelt had signs from the Japanese
that war was going to be unavoidable. With all this at hand, how come
there was no military movement to reinforce Pearl Harbor? Was this
really a surprise attack? Some say yes. With all this information
regarding war against the U.S. was the information to scattered? Was
there just not enough information for Roosevelt to put the military and
the country and alert for an attack? Even though the Japanese did say
“it meant war” was pretty vague, they could mean war anywhere not
specifically on Pearl Harbor or even against the United States. Most of
the codes we were receiving did not mention Pearl Harbor in even Hawaii
in fact. Even the burning of papers not necessarily “codes” was
happening in Hawaii by Japanese consulates. Indeed at the time there was
a good deal of evidence available to support all the wrong
interpretations of last-minute signals, and the interpretation appeared
wrong only after the event. There was for example, a good deal of
evidence to support that Japan would attack the Soviet Union from the
east while the Russian army was heavily engaged in the west. Plus the
high probability of an attack on Russia was concluded late November when
we had to concede that most of the troops were moving south. Enemy moves
are often subject to reversal of movement especially for the Japanese.

The Japanese turned silent when only a select few Japanese Cabinet
members were allowed to recognize naval movements by them and the U.S.

Japan kept most of their signals quiet in the later days of October and
into November. For every signal that we did receive there were usually
several plausible alternative explanations. Another barrier to accurate
perception was the fact that the relevant signals were subject to change
and often very sudden. This was true even of the so-called static
intelligence, which included data on capabilities and the composition of
military forces. Sometimes even our own security systems prevented the
communication of signals. It confronted out officers with the problem of
trying to keep information from the enemy without keeping it from each
other, and, as in the case of MAGIC, they where not always successful.

Only a few very key individuals saw these secret messages, and they saw
them briefly. They had no opportunity or time to make critical reviews
of the material and each one assumed that others who had seen it would
arrive at identical conclusions. For example Admiral Stark thought
Admiral Kimmel was reading all of MAGIC. This meant the limiting the
reading and discussion of MAGIC over the net. The codes and signals were
just too scarce. There was just not enough intelligence to figure out
when or where an attack or no attack would be present. After reviewing
all the information given by the sources I received, I have come to my
own conclusion that follows one of these arguments very well. I wish
someone could tell me how this was a surprise attack. One of my main
arguments is when the U.S. destroyed a Japanese Submarine one hour before
the attack of Pearl Harbor off the coast of the island Oahu. That should
be a major clue is that maybe the Japanese are closer to us then we
think. Yes, there were Japanese aircraft carriers 200 miles off the
coast of Oahu. That was a surprise because they went silent and secretly
piloted in north of the islands. It was only an hour before the attack
when we did locate there sub, but no one was notified of this? How could
of these gone unseen? Going back to the early months of 1941 almost a
year before the attack there were many codes or signals that were cracked
by U.S. cryptanalysts. I have found much more information on signals or
codes that should have not been over looked. “Warnings do no harm and
might do inexpressible good”. On January 27, 1941, Dr. Ricardo Shreiber,
the Peruvian envoy in Tokyo told Max Bishop, third secretary of the US
embassy that he had just learned from his intelligence sources that there
was a war plan involving a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. This
information was sent to the State Department and Naval Intelligence and
to Admiral Kimmel at Hawaii. It’s to my uncertain mind now another
source who learned from intelligent source that an attack was inevitable.

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March 31, 1941 – A Navy report by Bellinger and Martin predicted that if
Japan made war on the US, they would strike Pearl Harbor without warning
at dawn with aircraft from a maximum of 6 carriers. For years Navy
planners had assumed that Japan, on the outbreak of war, would strike the
American fleet wherever it was. The fleet was the only threat to Japan’s
plans. Logically, Japan couldn’t engage in any major operation with the
American fleet on its flank. The strategic options for the Japanese were
not unlimited. August 10 1941, the top British agent, code named
“Tricycle”, Dusko Popov, told the FBI of the planned attack on Pearl
Harbor and that it would be soon. The FBI told him that his information
was “too precise, too complete to be believed. The questionnaire plus the
other information you brought spell out in detail exactly where, when,
how, and by whom we are to be attacked. If anything, it sounds like a
trap.” He also reported that a senior Japanese naval person had gone to
Taranto to collect all secret data on the attack there and that it was of
utmost importance to them. The info was given to Naval IQ. I would like
to know how the information was “too precise”. It says that Japan will
attack Pearl Harbor. Too precise? September 24 1941, the “bomb plot”
message in J-19 code from Japan Naval Intelligence to Japan’ s consul
general in Honolulu requesting grid of exact locations of ships
pinpointed for the benefit of bombardiers and torpedo pilots was
deciphered. There was no reason to know the EXACT location of ships in
harbor, unless to attack them – it was a dead giveaway. Chief of War
Plans Turner and Chief of Naval Operations Stark repeatedly kept it and
warnings based on it prepared by Safford and others from being passed to
Hawaii. The chief of Naval Intelligence Captain Kirk was replaced because
he insisted on warning HI. It was lack of information like this that lead
to the exoneration of the Hawaii commanders and the blaming of Washington
for unpreparedness for the attack by the Army Board and Navy Court. At no
time did the Japanese ever ask for a similar bomb plot for any other
American military installation. Why the Roosevelt administration allowed
flagrant Japanese spying on PH has never been explained, but they blocked
2 Congressional investigations in the fall of 1941 to allow it to
continue. The bomb plots were addressed to “Chief of 3rd Bureau, Naval
General Staff”, marked Secret Intelligence message, and given special
serial numbers, so their significance couldn’t be missed. There were
about 95 ships in port.

This and about 2 full pages of signals were received by our
government. Obviously after reviewing all of this incredible information
I was mind boggled from the fact that none of the Admirals in command of
the Pacific fleet were informed of this information. Is it possible that
other attacks on the United States could have been prevented if
information had not been withheld?

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In one of the biggest losses in American history, Essay
Pearl Harbor stillstands for the sudden and deliberate attack the Japanese made on the Island
of Oahu in Hawaii on December 7th 1941. Everyone still remembers this day
in history as the only surprise attack on the United States.How come
this attack came without any knowledge to the U.S? Was there any
information regarding the involvement of a Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor?
One of the main questions; was the information deliberately withheld from
the Commanders in the Paci
2018-12-27 03:08:22
In one of the biggest losses in American history, Essay
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