They exist in association in language and make up a giant network with many interconnection and association among the various subparts. A good example of this interconnection involves metaphor. Metaphor is used in the literary or poetic language. It is also widely used in every day conversational language. It is obvious that metaphor is utilized to express ideas sensibly and vividly as it has great expressive power. It is capable of conveying more of the human feeling, emotion or attitude toward What is said rather than the non-metaphorical or direct way Of expression.
The more developed the society is, the more necessary the need Of communication becomes; especially in the process of globalization, the immunization has spread beyond the boundary of a country. Together with the development of the society in the era of integration, language has been clearly recognized as a very important tool in communication with many purposes. Language can be used to show ones feeling, attitude, and evaluation. And through communicating, reading newspapers etc. , I realize that people often use words, phrases denoting human body to show their feeling, emotionћ.Order now
In our daily elite, we can easily recognize words denoting our body parts used plentifully, not only individual words but also word combinations containing more than one human body part. Regarding to word groups denoting human body parts, their meanings are not the combination of each word’s meaning only, in some cases, their meanings are quite different from the original meaning. Learning of idioms is important, especially for the foreigner learners. Idioms correspond to a valuable vein in English language, so they need for explanation.
Idioms are fixed expressions whose meaning cannot be deduced from the meaning of its components. Learners of English must be aware that the meaning cannot be taken as a combination Of words Which the idiom consist Of. Also behavior of idioms in sentences is different. One cannot understand literally the meaning Of an idiom. Sometimes it seems that it has no sense or it is illogical. Idioms cannot be changed; especially one cannot use related words when the idiom is concerned. Many of them cannot be used in passive form. The structure of idioms is extraordinary.
That is why learners of English must know that the most important thing is not learning idioms by rote, but learning how to use them. If speaker of English knows a lot of idioms and he can use them in a right context, he will be able to communicate more easily. Idiomatic expressions are phrases which use language in a non-literal way, This is why interpretation of idioms is very hard. Idioms are group of words, phrases that meaning cannot be concluded from the individual words, Every idiom has a deeper, metaphorical meaning.
Idioms are very important in life because it is impossible to speak, read, write and listen to English without knowing idiomatic expressions. Native speakers of English feel more comfortable using idiomatic phrases; however, non-native speakers can be frustrated because the true meaning of an idiom is not always clear. One should remember that idioms can be used when every speaker master a language completely. Nowadays, idioms are essential elements that enrich the language.
However, one should remember that speech which is overloaded with idioms loses its originality. On the other hand, lack of idioms make that oral or written speech loses much in its expressiveness. A large number of phrases and sentences in the English language are related to body parts. Some Of them are descriptive While Others, elusive. Their origins are dated from Biblical times to the recent days. Each generation adds new idiomatic expressions which are connected with their culture. The meaning of idiomatic expressions is indefinable.
They show that adaptors are very important in our lives and that we do not look at things in the way they are in reality, but rather we perceive them through our understanding and our experience of the world. The present thesis is an attempt at an analysis of English idioms with a body component. Its goal is to study and present the nature tot idioms, their connection with culture and context. It is common knowledge that one of the most important functions of language is to name the world or express human thoughts through a system of concepts.
They exist in association in language and make up a giant network with many interconnection and association among the various subparts. A good example of this interconnection involves metaphor. Metaphor is used in the literary or poetic language. It is also widely used in every day conversational language. It is obvious that metaphor is utilized to express ideas sensibly and vividly as it has great expressive power. It is capable of conveying more of the human feeling, emotion or attitude toward what is said rather than the non-metaphorical or direct way Of expression.
Achilles’ heel: the only vulnerable spot in a person or thing that is thinness strong a serious or fatal weakness/ fault After ones own heart = to like someone cause Of similar interests An eye for an eye (and a tooth for a tooth): retaliation/ retribution in kind, a punishment that is as cruel as the crime An eye opener a surprise; a startling or enlightening experience Armed to the teeth – heavily armed Behind one’s back when one is not present Blue blood = having the qualities of being of noble birth Can’t put one’s finger on – can’t locate immediately, can’t find the answer Can’t see beyond the end of one’s nose = limited vision concerning decisions of the future Crocodile tears – false tears, pretended greet Face to face/ eyeball-to-eyeball = confronting each other
Foul mouth = a user of profanity Hand in hand? in close association Hands are tied = restrained from acting Heart-to-heart intimate speaking freely and seriously about a private subject I could have bitten my tongue off= sorry you said something In one ear and out the other does not heed or pay attention It’s in your hands = it is your responsibility On the tip Of Ones tongue: at the point Of telling or recalling One foot in the grave = old and decrepit Over one’s dead body: against one’s strong opposition Right-hand man= chief assistant TO (not) lift a ringer: not to help in the slightest degree To be all ears = to listen attentively To be loose-tongued to talk too much To be up to one’s ears = immersed in, caught in To break someone’s heart cause great sorrow, disappoint someone To breathe down someone neck = to follow someone closely in pursuit, the action of a superior who is looking for something wrong or watching someone very closely To bury ones head in the sand = to refuse to accept facts To catch ones breath – to rest to regain normal breathing To cry on someone’s shoulder – to go to Sorenson to talk to about a problem To foam/ froth at the mouth= to be very angry To force one’s hand = make one reveal his plans
To get one’s hands on= obtain To get out of hand= become uncontrollable To get through one’s head= to understand or believe To give one’s right arm make a big sacrifice; give something of great value To give someone a hand= help, assistance To go to one’s head? cause dizziness To have a big mouth= to talk too much To have a sharp tongue= harsh or sarcastic in speech To have an eagle eye= to have an excellent eyesight 1. 1 Aim Idiomatic Phrases For the first time the term ‘phraseology’ appeared in 16th century and it meant ‘style’ or ‘vocabulary. In 18th century it got terminological meaning such as ‘a group of word units’. At the same time in most of European languages ‘phraseology meant ’empty words’. New linguistic branch ‘phraseology’ developed in 20th century, mostly in East Europe.
The forerunner of phraseology was Charles. Bally, Swiss linguist. He used the term phraseology when he wrote about different types degree of stability from free word-groups of word-groups which differ in to phraseologies units, The study on phraseology was developed by Russian linguists AAA Shampoo and AD. Boliviano. M. Treacheries (1 991 :448) claims that linguists became aware of the existence in the language of special larger-than-words units: rod-groups consisting of two or more words whose combination is integrated as a unit with a specialized meaning linguists made an attempt to study various of the whole Russian word-groups on a scientific basis.
They pointed out the need to establish a new branch of linguistics that would study unusual feature Of word-groups. In linguistics, phraseology’ is a term used for describing the context in which a word is used. The term also describes various structural and semantic types Of phrases characterized by different degrees of idiomatic in given language. It includes typical sequences such as idioms, phrasal verbs, multiword unit and allocations. ” Phraseology – the words and phrases used in particular profession or activity something” or a particular way of putting words together to express (Macmillan English Dictionary 2007:11 19) Phraseology studies compound meaning of two or more words e. G. Like a knife through butter.
The meaning of the phrase is different from the words used alone, Phraseology studies why such meanings come in everyday use, and what possibly are the laws governing these word combinations. At present phraseology is a branch of linguistics studying phraseologies units. According to M. Treacheries phraseologies units are stable word groups enervative patterns tot tree word groups and they that are not based on the are characterized by an elaborate meaning. Treacheries claims that phraseologies unit should have: * Stability of use; k Structural separateness; * Complexity of meaning and k Word-groups are not built on the generative pattern of free word-groups. Stability of use means that phraseologies units are language units which are members of a language community.
Phraseology is connected with culture and speech community h Structural separateness helps to distinguish parasitological units from compound words. Complexity of meaning signifies the non- institutionalism Of phraseologies units, which mean that the meaning Of the whole phrase is different from the sum of literal meanings of the words. Each unit is constituted according to its own unique rule, Which cannot be predicted. One of three groups of phraseologies units is idioms. Phraseologies units are stable word groups and they have partially or fully transferred meanings (e. G. Kick the bucket). They are localized word group in common use. What is an idiom? A group of words whose meaning is different from the meanings of the individual words” 2000:672) (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary An expression established in the usage of a language that is peculiar to itself either in grammatical construction or in having a meaning that cannot be derived as a whole from the conjoined meanings of its elements” 1993:1123) (Webster Third New International Dictionary an idiom is a localized, reproducible overdo group in common use, which the syntactic stability, and may Carry connotations, but Whose meaning cannot 2001:125) be derived from the meanings of its constituents’ (Cookie The word ‘idiom’ comes from the Greek mot dido, meaning a unique signature. An idiom is an expression, a phrase or a combination Of words that has meaning that is different from a meaning of the individual words. Each language contains expressions which make no sense when they are translated literally into another language. Sometimes idiom can have literal meaning situation and different idiomatic meaning in another situation. In some is an expression or a phrase which does not always follow the normal rules of meaning and grammar. Outside a given culture) meaning that is unrelated If somebody (especially a foreigner or a person does not know that some words convey a to the individual meaning those words, he may does not understand what someone is saying, For example: ill two birds with one stone can literally mean that somebody killed two birds with one stone. But the idiom has totally different meaning: one resolves two difficulties or matters with a one single action. Expressions in other languages, can be easy Many idioms are similar to to understand and its meaning is usually obvious. For instance, black ship of the family in Poland can be easily understood because there is an identical idiom and it can be easily translated.
Other idioms come from older phrases which have changed their meaning over time, for example, kick the bucket originally offered to suicide victims standing on inverted buckets, they kick them away and in this way hang themselves, but now it means simply to die. (1995) suggests that some idioms are slang. “Slang seems Shelley to mean everything that is below the standard Of usage of present-day English” (Galleria 1971:96). Galleria cited a definition of slang of Endorsers New World Dictionary Of the American Language”: “I. Originally, the specialized vocabulary and idioms of criminals tramps, etc. The purpose of which was to disguise from outsiders the meaning Of What was said; now usually called can’t. 2. The visualized vocabulary and idioms of those in the same work, way of life. Etc. ; now usually called shoptalk, argot, jargon. ” (Galleria 1971:96).
According to Thomas (1935) idioms are known as click©s. Click©s expressions that have been used over and over again. They are overused and common expressions. Of the language because Idioms are perceived as a very interesting part they are different from simple words and phrases. They make language life and rich because they take existing words and combine them with a new sense and create totally new expressions. Language is a living thing Living things grow and change, so does language. (Seeds and McBride 1988:1 1) English language being flexible enriches its vocabulary with the words invented by language speakers, which makes English more colorful with new idiomatic expressions.
Since idioms have unpredictable meaning, structure and collocations, they are linguistic curiosities. In many schools, dictionaries and books idioms are omitted because used in classrooms. But they are perceived as insignificant. They are rarely in spoken language idioms are used quite often because of its metaphorical meaning. According to Seeds and McBride (1988) the attitude to language some parts Of grammar (case, number s still changing. It is observed in and tense), and in style. Some words which were deemed as slang in the past now are considered informal or colloquial. Idioms are not any longer colloquial expressions. They appear in formal style, in poetry and in the language Idioms and culture of the Bible. By culture we understand the ability of members of speech community to orientate themselves with respect to social, moral, political and so on values in their empirical and mental experience, Cultural categories are conceptualized in the subconscious knowledge of standards, stereotypes, mythologies, rituals, mineral habits and other cultural patterns”. (Cookie 2001 The term idiom refers to a group of words which are usually confusing to people who are not familiar with the language. Nevertheless, many phrases or expressions from natural language are in fact idioms or have idiomatic origin and they have been assimilated into the language. Idioms are often colloquial metaphors.
They often combine in their semantics more than one type of cultural information. It means that they require some foundational knowledge, information and experience which are used only within a culture where groups must have common reference. As cultures are localized around some area, idioms are not useful for communication outside of that local context. But there are some idioms that can be more universally used than others, they can be easily translated and their metaphorical meaning can be more easily deduced. Those common idioms have deep roots in many languages, they can be translated in Other languages and tend to become international. Idioms are an essential part of English style language study.
One cannot say that he know English history, culture and society Without understanding the meaning and the roots of English idioms. Each generation has added its new non-literal expressions which are defined by the values, beliefs, traditions, customs and events of the times. If you master idioms you will be on your path to better understanding English culture, customs, society and lifestyle of English people, The idiomatic phrases capture the true essence of society better than its equivalent prosaic description. When one uses idioms among English friends and even business associates, he can create emotional bands that bring him closer to their culture. Mastery of idioms can lead to better understanding of people.
Often background intimation on the origin or popular usage of idioms provides important insight into culture, Different aspects of an idiom Seeds and McBride (1988) said that idioms are not only colloquial expressions, but they also appear in formal style and in poetry. Idioms often occur in journalism, radio and magazines to make information, stories and articles more interesting. However, idioms are often connected with informal language. The construction Of an idiom is strict and for one it can be Odd (e. G. Not by a long chalk). Sometimes the construction seems to be illogical (e. G. For two pins). This is Why learning idioms is not only very difficult task but also very exciting and intriguing.
People who do not know certain idioms cannot easily understand the others. Such a phrase would not remake sense and one cannot deduce what is actual meaning of the expression. These features causes that idioms have to be learnt as a whole expressions without any changes. Sometimes idioms have alternative forms without any change in their meaning (e. G. to drop a brick and put one’s foot in it mean to say something tactlessly or blue-eyed ho and golden boy – a favored person). In some cases several verbs can be used n one idiom and the meaning is the same, but sometimes there are slight changes in meaning connected with the verb which it substitutes (e. G. Pep/bear someone in mind, come/get to/reach the point). An idiom is natural to native speakers of the language and only people who are possess English very good can use idiomatic expressions in their speech. Have different structures and combinations. They can be short they contain various parts of speech and they are unpredictable, Idioms or long, sometimes one may guess meaning from the context, when the idiom is used in a particular situation. Foreigners know the meaning of the idiom when t is related to the mother tongue of the speaker (e. G. Be in seven heaven in Polish its mean byte w is¶dummy newbie). Some idioms are so difficult that one cannot guess the meaning from the context correctly.
It is difficult to learn them. Idioms can change their meaning during period of time or simple phrase can transform into idiom and get deeper meaning as it was With kick the bucket. Learners of foreign language have to learn idioms as a single with their meaning. It is essential to master the rules Of their use in sentences. They are strict in their structure and they do not allow the word order to change. A earner must know how to use an idiom in the correct way. Idioms are not separate part of language, but they are very important part of lexicon. Languages contain a large number of idioms and sometimes native speakers use them in the unconscious way.
There are many problems with idioms. The main problem is that it is not usually possible to translate them literally. There are exceptions, for instance, take the bull by the horns can be translated literally into Polish as whiz© back AZ rig, which has the same meaning. Mostly, the use of normal rules in order Idioms have to be treated to translate idioms will result in illogical phrases, s single units in translation. There are idioms which are ‘frozen’, It means that an idiom appears tort and in the same order (e. G. For good – ‘forever). But, there in the same is problem with idioms which change the form of the verb, which varies according to tense, person and number.
For example, kick the bucket (to die’) one gets she kicks/ kicked/will kick the bucket, Some people have problem with recognizing idioms because they behave like a simple sentence. One can think that the person really kicks the bucket and he does not imagine himself that The interpretation of idioms for one can be surprising. Cosines idioms Which hue frozen forms’. Idioms pragmatics and context the person died. It is better to “Pragmatics – the study Of the way in Which language is used to express what somebody really means in particular situations, especially when the actual words used may appear to mean something different. ” (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English 2000:1031). Pragmatics is involved with the comprehension process.
The ability to understand another speaker’s aim is called pragmatic competence, It is a linguistic study of the way in which people use language to achieve different goals. Suppose a person wanted to ask omen else to reveal a secret. These could be achieved in the different ways. The person could simply say ‘do not tell a secret, please’ which is direct and with clear meaning. Alternatively the person could say ‘do not spill the beans’, which implies a similar meaning but is indirect and therefore requires pragmatic competence, Idioms play very important role in those studies. Because idioms have general meaning they are rather used to express attitude then give specific information. They are used to express approval or disapproval and admiration or criticism.
According to Collins Cowbird Dictionary of Idioms (1995) idioms moieties have connotations and pragmatic meaning which are not always obvious to people who do not know the meaning and then the meaning of the expression can be missed. It may happen that somebody can use an idiom and do not realize that it can be interpreted as critical or disapproving. It can cause wrong reaction of the person they are talking to. The most challenging aspects for language learners Pragmatics is one of to comprehend, and can be learned by experience. The interpretation Of What speaker wanted to say using particular words is often influenced by factors such as listener’s assumption or the context.
In pragmatics two contexts can be distinguished: linguistic context (is the set of words that surround the lexical item) and physical context (is the location Of given words, the situation in Which the word is used, as well as timing, all of them lead to proper understanding of the words). 12 Practical value When we use idioms? According to Sells and McBride (1988) one should know in which situations it is correct to use idiom and weather an idiom can be used in a formal or an informal situation. English native speakers use idioms all the time, and they often do it in an unconscious way, This means that the communication tit them can be very difficult.
They use idioms to express something that other words do not express as clearly or as cleverly, the person who is speaking, Of course choice of words depends on on the situation and the place. If people are friends and they are talking in private there is no reason to avoid using idioms, slang or jargon. But, if in the same situation one of speakers is foreigner they should not use idioms until this person Will master the language completely. Learning idioms cause a lot of troubles to English learners because they do not know the culture and history behind the idioms. That is ay they often use idioms inappropriately. Learners use idiomatic expressions carefully because they are afraid Of using them incorrectly. In formal situations. It means when one is talking with a stranger or speaks publicly than one should shun idioms. Sing idioms one should know Whether an idiom is appropriate in certain situation. When idioms are used judiciously, they can even improve the atmosphere of one’s formal writing and provide more interesting descriptions, But when one uses too many idioms, he will damage his work and it will create a wrong impression. Learners of foreign language should know hat they cannot translate idioms exactly because they achieve ridiculous effect. The results towering
Idioms can be learnt only by listening to native speakers or reading texts which contains idioms. “Mastery of idioms comes only slowly, through careful study and observation, through practice and experience. ” (Seeds and McBride 19788) Idioms with a body part component Many English idioms are related to external and internal organs of the human body. Body parts idioms contain following aspects: body parts which are connected with senses internal organs limbs and limbs’ elements Other body parts Body idioms connected with senses Ear Idioms Ear – is an organ of hearing. It is a part of human auditory system and it is used to listen to the sounds. Ear idioms have both positive and negative meaning.
Half of them are positively loaded; the other part is negatively loaded. Eye idioms Eye – is an organ of vision. According to Macmillan dictionary (2007) eye is one of w. 0 body parts used for seeing. Most of the idioms are positively loaded. Nose idioms Nose – it is a part of people’s face that is used for smelling and breathing. Half of nose idioms have a positive meaning the other half have a negative meaning. Skin idioms According to Mcmillan English dictionary (2007) skin is the external layer of humans and animal’s body. Skin also enables feeling. Body idioms connected with limbs and limbs’ elements Arm idioms Arm – is an upper limb Of human body With your hands at the end.