Medieval writers classified people into three groups: Those who fought (Nobles and Knights) Those who prayed (Men and Women of the Church) Those who worked (Peasants) Most peasants were serfs (People who could not lawfully leave the place where they were born) Manor- the lord’s estate The lord provided the serfs with housing, farmland, and protection from bandits. Crusades The numerous clashes between Christians and Muslims for control of the Holy Lands of the Middle East Had economic, social, and political goals as well as religious motives. (Muslims controlled Palestine (Holy Land) and threatened Constantinople.Order now
Byzantine emperor in Constantinople appealed to Christians to stop Muslim attacks. The pope wanted to reclaim Palestine and reunite Christendom which had split into Eastern and Western branches) Kings and the church saw the Crusades as an opportunity to get rid of knights that fought each other. Those who participated in the Crusades were younger sons who, unlike eldest sons, did not stand to inherit their father’s property. They were looking for land and position in society or for adventure. Concordat of Worms The First Crusade and Second Crusade
Pope Urban II launched the first Crusades (He called on Christians to drive the Turks out of Anatolia and recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule) The Crusaders captured Jerusalem and massacred its Jewish and Muslim inhabitants. They established a Latin Christian Kingdom that lasted about a century (Subsequent popes called for further Crusades) Pope Urban call for the first Crusade brought a lot of religious feeling and support Those who died in the Crusade were assured a place in heaven Battle cry: “God wills Most of the Crusaders were French )Bohemians, Germans, Englishmen, Scoots,
Italians, and Spaniards also Joined) The Crusaders were ill-prepared for war in the first Crusades (Many did not know of the geography, climate, or culture of the Holy in the south) four feudal Crusader states were carved out of this territory and each were ruled by a European noble Crusader states were vulnerable to Muslim counterattack. The Third Crusade The Third Crusade to recapture Jerusalem was led by three of Rupee’s most powerful monarchs (Philip II Augustus of France, German emperor Frederick I Barbarous, and the English king, Richard the Lion-Hearted) Philip argued with
Richard and went home, Barbarous drowned. Richard was left to lead the Crusades in an attempt to regain the Holy Land from Salad’s (Muslim leader) They were both great warriors After many battles, the two agreed to truce in 1192. Jerusalem remained under Muslim rule Salad’s promised unarmed Christian pilgrims could freely visit the city holy places The Fourth Crusade Failed to capture Jerusalem Knights did not reach the Holy Lands Crusading Spirit Disappears In asses four more Crusades failed Search for personal gain grew The Children’s Crusade Took place in 1212
Thousands of Children set out to conquer Jerusalem Stephen of Closes (age 12) led a group in France. 30,000 children under 18 Joined him Many died from cold and starvation, others drowned or were sold into slavery In Germany, Nicholas of Cologne gathered about 20,000 children and young adults. They began marching towards Rome Thousands did in the cold and crossing of the Alps When the rest arrived to Rome they met the pope and he told them to go home and wait until they were older 2,000 survived the trip home Spanish Crusade In Spain, Muslims controlled most of the country until asses.
The Reconstitutes- a long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain By late asses, the Muslims only held the small kingdom of Granddad Granddad fell to the Christian army of the monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella To bring their country under Christianity and increase their power, the monarchs made use of the Inquisition (a court held by the Church to suppress heresy Many Jews and Muslims in Spain converted to Christianity Effects of the Crusades European merchants who lived in Crusade states expanded trade between Europe and Southwest Asia Lessened the power of the pope Weakened feudal nobility Increased power of the kings