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    EN 373 Two Essay

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    Agatha Christie
    best selling author in the world, outsold only by Shakespeare and the Bible, epitomizes the genre (not innovator, but perfecter), seek to reconcile damage of WWI
    Themes of The Body in the Library x Agatha Christie
    -suspicion of upper class by lower class
    -triumph of women’s suffrage/ conflict of gender
    -older generation v.

    lower generation (Bantrys, Marple v. Basil, Mark, Josie)

    Characters in The Body in the Library
    Colonel Bantry
    Dolly Bantry
    Miss Marple- asked to help by Dolly Bantry, fears if murder is not solved Bantrys will be shamed within their community, wedded to village parallels, St. Mary Mead = microcosm, skills that are typically dismissed by men as women’s intuition, skeptical
    Inspector Slack- puts down Marple and her abilities
    Colonel Melchett
    Basil Blake- prime suspect, designs props for a movie set, found body on hearth moved it to Bantry’s library, not off fighting bc injured in London Blitz
    Ruby Keene- murdered by Josie and Mark, burned in George Bartlett’s car
    Conway Jefferson- reported Ruby missing, planned on adopting her and leaving her his fortune
    Sir Henry Clithering- retired Scotland Yard commissioner, old friend of Conway who looks into Ruby’s murder
    Adelaide/Peter- wife/son of Frank, Frank lost inheritance in a bad investment
    Pamela Reeves- thought to be body in charred car, actually tricked by Mark to play a double (Ruby) for a movie
    Dinah Lee- married to Basil Blake
    George Bartlett- car stolen, dumb
    Raymond Starr- hotel dance and tennis instructor
    Josie Turner- Ruby’s cousin/hostess/dancer at the Majestic Hotel, married to Mark, tried to murder Conway
    Mark Gaskell- Rosamund’s widow, heir to Conway’s fortune, gambled away Rosamund’s inheritance
    Superintendent Harper-
    The Body in the Library
    -police force not obviously idiotic
    -surprise element, puzzle element
    -self-knowing detective story
    -library symbolizes Bantrys, lived past its prime, sacred space, sanctuary of Victorian England (no vulgarity like Dinah and Basil), no Bantry children = dying line
    -juxtaposition of gaudy body in library
    -people/bodies conform to types- Christie commenting on the fact that people shouldn’t be boxed in as a type
    hearth- center of warmth, heart of home, source of life
    The Maltese Falcon x Dashiell Hammett
    The Maltese Falcon characters
    Sam Spade- private detective, governed by code of ethics (protecting his clients), blond satan (V motif)
    Brigid O’Shaughnessy- Miss Wonderly, Miss LeBlanc, femme fatale (takes advantage of beauty and sex appeal to get men to do what she wants), liar, manipulator, unobtainable relationship
    Casper Gutman- fat man, obsessed with the black falcon statue, figure of excess, ruthless but honest (make Wilmer, son-like figure, a scapegoat)
    Joel Cairo- works for Gutman, wimpy, delicate, womanly description (queer-figure),
    Effie Perine- Spade’s secretary, loyal, not flashy, professional relationship
    Miles Archer- Spade’s partner whom he disliked
    Iva Archer- Miles’s wife who Spade was having an affair with, manipulative, clingy, lack of trust, relationship = convenience
    Sid Wise- Spade’s lawyer
    Luke- hotel detective
    The Maltese Falcon
    -starts with a body
    -more we learn, less we know
    -mechanistic, empirical view of human nature (person = body = machine, no soul or spirit)
    -not allowed to know Spade from the inside
    -every scene includes Spade
    -Hammett, play fair, reader learns as detective does
    -“wild and unpredictable” v. machine like
    – Spade sets his desires aside unlike everyone else
    -Spade continually gives Brigid a chance to trust him
    -taking things a face value and the danger of that
    -value of bird far exceed material value, history makes it valuable
    -names (Spade- digs, Cairo-oriental, Gutman- gluttonous, Miles Archer- soldier that falls in line of duty)
    -Flitcraft story- humans are automaton that desire security
    -Spade strips Brigid to see if she took money and finds nothing, parallel to Flitcraft and falcon
    Farewell My Lovely characters
    Philip Marlowe- obliged to right wrongs (motivation), private detective, knightly figure unlike Spade/Holmes

    Nulty- racist
    Moose Malloy- felon, big, loud dresser, kills Jessie Florian and black night club owner
    Jessie Florian- widow of former Florian night club owner
    Lindsay Marriott- held trust deed on Florian’s house
    Jules Amthor- psychic,
    Velma Valento- informed on Malloy, married to Lewin Grayle, met him on his radio show, commits suicide after fleeing
    Mr. Lewin Grayle- rich man, owner of radio station
    Anne Riordan- policemans daughter
    Lt. Randall- intelligent/honest LA cop
    Laird Brunette- local hoodlum, controls corrupt Bay City government
    Red Noorgard- honest cop fired by Bay City, violet eyes, helps Marlowe on Brunette’s boat, eventually gets job back
    Dr. Sonderborg- where Bay City cops drop Marlowe after they knock him out at Amthors
    John Wax- corrupt Bay City police chief
    Second Planting- Indian actor/guard for Jules Amthor, out of place in modern society, smell is earthy not like the city, racism

    Farewell My Lovely x Raymond Chandler
    -stolen jade, goes to solve one case but finds a more important one
    -Marlowe is loyal to his client, Spade loyal to profession
    -Chandler conscious through Marlowe
    -Rembrant painting, reflects Marlowe, free calendar, advertising space, S.

    Cal consumer culture, allegory between art and commerce
    -Rembrandt reduced to mechanic process, picture printed and reprinted a million times
    -Marlowe dragged into the case
    -Marlowe’s card found on Marriott smeared like Rembrandt
    -murder of Mrs. Florian similar to orangutan killing in Murder in the Rue Morgue
    -pink bug represents Marlowe, keep getting up despite obstacles, wander but not getting anywhere
    -Marlowe only uses N-word with people he wants to get info from
    -everything is for sale- even race- for white consumption
    -Brunette (new crime) v. Malloy (old crime)
    -Anne Riordan/Irene Adler parallel, active women

    The Galton Case characters
    Lew Archer- role of psychoanalyst, Captain Nemo
    Gordon Sable- lawyer that hires Archer, murdered Peter Culligan, blamed it on Alice, planned John Galton scheme
    Tony Galton- declassed himself in Depression, became poet, married Theodora Fredericks
    Maria Galton- Tony’s mother, desire to find son and make amends
    Dr. August Howell (daughter Sheila)- Galton’s physician, weary of John Galton
    Cassie Hildreth- lives with Maria (helps her), in love with Tony, shares similar affection toward John
    Alice Sable- had affair with Peter Culligan, abusive relationship, psychotic
    Peter Culligan- masterminded John Brown plot against Maria Galton with Sable
    Chad Bolling- poet, child like behavior when hes by the sea

    Dineen- oldest generation represented in the book
    John Galton/Theo Fredericks
    Marion Matheson- nurse for baby John

    The Galton Case x Ross Macdonald
    -intergenerational strife, fragmentation within family
    -bad individuals, not a systemic issue
    -detective hero as psychoanalyst (Fran Lemberg)
    -images of rising and falling, bird imagery
    -going up = going to Heaven
    -Marvista Manor- no men, buried past, built on bones of John Galton
    -takes place in fictional Santa Teresa
    -going through the motions (how John finds his identity)
    -Luna Bay
    -speech as a symbol of authenticity
    The Postman Always Rings Twice x James Cain
    -represent world as a gritty place, focus on lower class
    -noir fiction
    -repetition: cats (Cora as Hell Cat, Katz, Madge Allen’s cats), murder attempts, Twin Oaks, cars (1st kills Nick, 2nd kills Cora)
    -media = idea for murder attempt one
    -horizontal (negative freedom-Frank) v. vertical movement (positive freedom-Nick)
    -Nick embraces his past-tavern logo has Greek/US flag
    The Postman Always Rings Twice character
    Nick Papdakis- “the Greek”, small business owner, treasures his memories
    Cora Papadakis- wants to be something, resents the Greek, wants to be someone without history, loves Twin Oak Tavern and Nick’s gold watch, can’t stand breeding with nonAmerican
    Frank Chambers- wanderer, rootless, thrown into the story, vacuum: eat, smoke, drink, sex, consumption, constantly starting over
    Katz- attorney
    Sackett- investigator
    Madge Allen- woman who Frank has affair with, trains jungle cats for Hollywood
    -nonfiction, 1964
    -Didion: descendant of California settlers, cynical view of newcomers
    -dream teaches dreamers how to live (ie: social media)
    -future always looks good because no one can remember the past, everyone looking to start over
    -Church of Nazarin next to strip club
    -Lucille Miller
    F is for Fugitive x Sue Grafton
    -Floral beach- not a lot of men in the street
    -older generation looking to reconcile w alienated child
    -Kinsey: androgynous, no disguise/makeup, rejection of femininity
    -class disparity: privileged middle class v. white trash
    -Ocean Beach Motel
    -theater: Floral Beach as backside of real town, illness as theater
    Devil in a Blues Dress x Walter Mosley
    -Monet= impressionist painter
    -how people deal with racism, exile, isolation, black consciousness in America
    -positive freedom: house, negative freedom: Mouse
    – system= racist and corrupt, Rawlins has to spy on his own community, money motive, test his allegiance, divided loyalty
    -sentiment of resentment among blacks who fought in WWII, fought for freedom yet dont have equal rights (Albright represents the white man)
    -opening description resembles Raymond Chandler
    -Easy worked in assembly line at Champion Aircraft
    -Dewitt offers job with respect (American Dream), Benny doesn’t
    -Dewitt and Mouse are twins
    -Dewitt violence physical and outright, Benny is psychological
    -by the end of the novel, Easy in like Albright, does favors for friends and friends of friends but not as vicious
    -mouse in interrogation room like Chandler’s pink bug
    -Easy uses race as a disguise among his own ppl
    -Mouse comfortable in his own skin, only free black in his community?
    -Ruby Hanks (green eyes), Daphne (blue)
    Devil in a Blue Dress characters
    Easy Rawlins- settles in LA after WWII, from Texas
    DeWitt Albright- white man who hires Easy to find Daphne, commissioned by Todd Carter, satan incarnate
    Joppy- owner of bar, Easy’s friend but betrays him, killed Howard Green and Coretta, killed by Mouse
    Daphne Monet/Ruby Hanks- looks white but isn’t, Todd Carter’s love, stole $30,000 from him, femme fatale
    Junior Fornay- killed Richard McGee
    Howard Green- Matthew Teran’s former chauffeur, killed by Joppy, tried to help boss ruin Mr. Carter
    Matthew Teran- pedophile, tries to use Daphne to get back at Todd Carter
    Richard McGee- homosexual pimp who sells young boys to rich men ie: Matthew Teran, dates Daphne until she leaves him, killed by Junior after he escorts him hime from bar
    Frank Green- gangster who hijacks alcohol and cigarettes, “Knifehand”, killed by Mouse
    Todd Carter- president of Lion Investments, weak-willed, helps Easy avoid jail time
    Raymond “Mouse” Alexander- 5’6″, dangerous, helps Easy solve mystery
    Odell- Easy’s quiet, cautious friend, voice of fear
    Dupree- former coworker at Champion
    Coretta- gives Easy info on Daphne, killed by Joppy
    Benny- Easy’s boss at Champion that doesn’t show him respect
    Death and the Compass x Borges
    -metafictional like Body in the Library
    -Erik: detective vanity, feels like he’s the only one who can solve the case which leads him into Red’s trap
    -Yarmolinsky = death Rabbi
    – Jewish editor who no one took notice of except Red (how he learns Eriks agenda)
    -everything revealed in mirrors on top of Triste-Le-Roy
    -unknown location: everywhere and nowhere
    -nothing exists singularly: doubles/repetition (Scharlacks brother)
    -Erik feeling of deja vu feels like hes in a trap

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