For example: in race we have ‘whites’ which are my ingrown and ‘colored people’ who are my outgrip, although the division between groups is not always so simplistic. In this essay we will explore further the concept that groups can influence people in positive and negative ways. Firstly the story bookend’, shows both the positive and negative influence of groups on the individual Condo is a Japanese American girl taking part in participation- observation research in Japan over a twenty six month period.
She is immediately confronted with peoples puzzlement and distaste as she does not fulfill the conceptual schema (a collection of information and characteristics that are expected) of someone Who looks like a native Japanese person. It was clear that coping with this anomalous creature avgas difficult, for here was someone Who looked like a real human being, but simply failed to perform according to expectation. ‘ As cited in Spoors et al. , (2011 IPPP) Therefore in order to fit in, Condo would have to (conform) learn the local dialect and customs.Order now
On observing the customs of the country, Condo was congratulated by her host and welcomed in to the family. Condo states, ‘l was left with a warm, positive feeling toward the Oakmont family, armed with an incentive to behave in a Japanese way. ‘as cited in Spoors et al. , (201 1 IPPP) On the negative side Condo reports feelings of conflict when she has to behave in a subservient way in order to fulfill her role in the case of serving the men of the house food first and receiving little or no thanks.
This evidence suggests that in order to be accepted as a member of a group, in this case as Japanese, a member of the family and a good daughter, one would have to conform even if this provoked feelings Of role conflict. (tensions caused by taking on roles which conflict with our own ideas or beliefs. ) Secondly, in an experiment led by Sheriff et al. (1961) entitled ‘Robbers cave’ e also see both positive and negative group influence. A group Of boys were divided in to two groups.
The groups were cohesive and displayed normal behavior. They then set up a tournament}competition. ‘good sportsmanship quickly degenerated in to overt group hostility, with name calling, aggression and prejudice in evidence. ‘ Spoors et al. , (2011 IPPP. ) Within each of the two groups, loyalty, solidarity and cooperation were at optimum levels. The researchers then manipulated the situation by giving them activities which required active cooperation of the two groups. This proved successful.
Therefore, hen the groups co-operated this was positive group influence and a show to support and solidarity versus the overt group hostility which bought in to play the negative ingrown and outgrip divisions, also prejudice and aggression in a bid for power and supremacy, This also conveys a belief, that in order to bolster and preserve your own groups self esteem and achieve a sense of superiority, it is necessary to discriminate against and be hostile to the outgrip Thirdly, Sash’s (1955) experiment illustrates how individuals can be persuaded to conform under group pressure .
Fifty participants were seated in groups f approximately seven _ Each group was shown a picture of a line and then a picture of three or more lines which may correspond with the first, in length. Most Of the participants were confederates and were in fact primed to give the wrong answer in order to coerce the real participants in to also giving the wrong answer. Seventy five percent Of the real participants conformed and gave an obviously wrong answer. It was also found that if the real participants were given the option to write down their answer the levels of conformity were lower.
This study suggests that subject to group pressure, many people will publicly agree ND support the group even if they know their group is in the wrong. They would do this rather than face hostility and rejection. This shows that an individual within a group situation feel forced to compromise their own private ethics and values in a negative sense, in order to avoid other negative consequences, Finally in the case of ‘Heaven’s Gate’ we see that not only can group membership cause negative consequences but also fatal consequences.
A cult that believed a new existence was waiting for them and would be transferred To a spaceship hiding behind the Haley Bop comet, committed ass suicide in March 1997,Previous to that date the members of the group had been required to sever contact with their families and sold their worldly possessions. They had also become celibate with some of the male members submitting to voluntary castration. (Spoors et al. , (2011 IPPP. These acts took away any external influence and left the group in a vulnerable position with only their group leaders to influence and guide them. ‘cult bonds are often created through such factors as the emotional attachment to the group and fear of powerful leaders making people feel dependent on the group’. Singer 1995 s cited in Spoors et al. , (2011 p 120) Therefore, if people feel solely dependent on a group and have nothing outside of it, then they can be an easy target for manipulation and be forced to act in accordance With group norms and pressures.