What we as a society do collectively to assure the conditions in which peoplecan live productive and vigorous lives. Public Health does things that benefiteveryone.
It also prevents illness and educates the population. Public Health isa combination of science, practical skills and beliefs that is directed to themaintenance and improvement of the health of people. The science and art ofpreventing disease, prolonging life and promoting physical health and efficiencythrough organized community efforts. Cryptosporidium Parvum has been recognizedas a human pathogen since 1976. During 1976-1982, the disease was reportedrarely and occurred predominantly in immunocompromised persons. In 1982, thenumber of reported cases began to increases as a result of acquiredimmunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Cryptosporidium Parvum is a one-cell parasite,which cause the disease Cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidiosis is an intestinalillness caused by a microscopic parasite called cryptosporidium. The parasite istransmitted by ingestion of oocysts excreted in the feces of infected humans oranimals. The infection can therefore be transmitted from person-to-person,through ingestion of contaminated water or food, from animal to person, or bycontact with fecally contaminated environmental surfaces. Cryptosporidium can befound on clothing, bedding, or other things used by infected persons, suchperson with diarrhea or children in diapers.
Sex that may involve contact withstool, especially oral sex, can also pass cryptosporidia. The stool of domesticand farm animals, especially animals less than six months old or animals withdiarrhea, can contain cryptosporidium. Individuals should always wash theirhands after touching animals or cleaning up their stool or visiting barns andareas where these animals live. Also in women, when cleaning yourself aftermovement of bowels, wipe front to back to avoid fecal contact with the vaginaand urethra.
The most common symptom is diarrhea, which is usually watery whichis often accompanied by abdominal cramping, nausea, vomiting, fever, headacheand loss or appetite may also occur. Some people with cryptosporidium may beasymptomatic. The incubation period may range from one to twelve days with anaverage of seven days. Sources of crypto are; people, cows, cats, mice, turkeys,chickens, monkeys, sheep, goats, rabbits, fish, reptiles, opossums, and birds.
As of November 16,1999 cryptosporidium parvum effected thirty six people withinthe state of New Jersey; 2 in Atlantic county, 4 in Bergen county, 5 inBurlington county, 5 in Camden county, 2 in Cape may, 2 in Essex county, 1 inHudson county, 1 in Hunterton county, 4 in Middlesex county, 4 in Monmouthcounty, 2 in Morris county, 2 in Ocean county, 2 in Passaic county, 2 in Unioncounty, and 1 in Sussex county. The most common transmission for these effectedpersons in NJ is person to person contact, fecal to oral contact, and homosexualmales. No one has every died from this illness In NJ but some of theses peoplehave been hospitalized for observation and to be exact it is not something else. Day care centers have to be exceptionally careful because of younger childrenwho wear diapers.
Changing a baby who may be infected can make the handler atrisk if the fecal matter was meet. In 1994 there was a reported 2, 070 estimatedcases in Lake Nummy, NJ suspected cause was from contaiminated shallow Lakepark. Today there is no vaccination or medicine for this illness. If infected,contact your medical practitioner for immediate diagnosis. There are precautionsthat we as a community can do.
As a community we can: ? Use a waterfilter; unless it is distilled or pasteurized, bottled water may not be anysafer than tap water. Using a water filter that has the words “reverseosmosis” on the label protect against crypto. Some “absolute 1 micron” andmost “nominal 1 micron” filters will not work against crypto. ?Boiling water for at least one minute with a rolling boil will killcryptosporidium. ? Properly drilled and maintained wells that utilizeunderground water are generally protected from surface contaminattion and areunlikely to contain cryptosporidium oocysts.
? Practice safer sex. (Rimming) kissing or licking the anus. ? Be careful when swimming inlakes, rivers, or pools, and when using hot tubs. ? Avoid touching farmanimals and stool of pets. ? Wash hands thoroughly before and afterhandling food.
? Food that would be eaten uncooked should be washed well,peel skin off, and then eaten. ? Do not eat or drink unpasteurized milkor dairy products. There have been numerous outbreaks of crypto but the one thateffected the most people was in Milwaukee. In 1993 cryptosporidiosis affectedmore than 400,000 people.
I believe that cryptosporidium parvum is in the scopeof public health because it efffect the community as a whole. In order notreceive this sickly illness the community has to come together and takeprecautions not only in the house but also in schools, play grounds, work place,and after school programs. In a community we look out for each other so it wouldbe helpful to contact the FDA, and Safe Water Drinking department in theircommunity. The most important question that pops in my mind is how to elevatemore outbreaks in NJ? First the government could examine the illness more tofind out exactly where the parasite is developed and maybe from that point itcan be eradicated. If that does not work we as a society can only takeprecautions as I mentioned above, use water filters, do not touch stool of anykind, and boil water for at least one minute with a rolling boil. Because it isa water born illness and a very intricate malady, I can not pin point a mainproposal to maybe eradicate this sickness.
From learning about the disease andtalking to people who are studying it, I gathered that the only possible step toavoid this affliction is by using precautionary measures (such as thosementioned above). Bibliography1. New Jersey State Health Department 1-800-367-6543 Mrs. Mary Jane Hung andDr.
Sorsage 2. Safe Drinking Water Act 1-609-292-5550 Steve Pudney 3. “Cryptosporidiosis: Fact Sheet”. Center For Disease Control and Prevention.
28 May. 1998. Available: http://www. cdc. gov/ncidod/diseases/crypto/cryptos. htm 4.
“Cryptosporidiosis: Control and Prevention”. Centers for Disease Control andPrevention. 28 May. 1998.
Available: http://www. cdc. gov/ncidod/disease/crypto/control. htm5. Juronek, D.
Dennis. “Cryptosporidiosis: Sources of Infection and Guidelinesfor Prevention”. 28 May. 1998.
Available: http://www. cdc. gov/ncidod/disease/crypto/sources. htm6. “Cryptosporidiosis”.
Cryptosporidiosis. 9 May. 1998. Avaiable: http://www.
cdc. gov/ncidod/dpd/crypto. htm7. “Cryptosporidiosis”. New York State Department of Health CommunicableDisease Fact Sheet. February 1999.
Available: http://www. health. state. ny. us/nysdon/consumer/crypto.
htm8. “Waterborne/foodborne outbreaks of Cryptosporidium parvum”. Cryptosporidium in the Environment. 4 September.
1999. Available: http://www. ksu. edu/parasitology/water9. “Jersey City Water Consumer Confidence Report”.
City of Jersey City. 15January. 1999. Available: http://www. city. com/water/waterccr101599.
html 10. “Foodborne Outbreak of Diarrheal Illness Associated with Cryptosporidiumparvun?Minnesota, 1995”. Morbidity and Morality Weekly Report. 13 September.
1996. Available; http://www- micro. msb. le.
ac. uk/others/FDA/~mow/crypto2. html 11. “Assessing the Public Health Threat Associated with WaterborneCryptosporidiosis: Report of a Workshop”.
Assessing Public Health Threat Assc. w/Waterborne Cryptosporidiosis. 16 June. 1995. Available: http://www.wonder.cdc.gov/wonder.prevguid/m0037331/entire.htm