. Know characteristics of single-celled heterotroph. Understand eukaryotic life cycles. Endosymbiosis; origin of mitochondria and chloroplast. Know 7 superkingdoms of eukaryotes.
Know superkingdom Opisthokonta. Choanoflagellates. Know Superkingdom Amoebazoa. Know superkingdom Archaeplastida. Know green algae diversity.
Know superkingdom Excavata. Know phylogeny of phtosynthesis. Fossil record of protistsChapter 28: Being Multicellular. Know about simple multicellularity. Know properties of complex multicellularity.Order now
Understand diffusion and bulk transport. Know about choanoflagellates. Know communication in animals and plants. Understand blastula, gastrulation, gastrula.
Understand Evo-Devo, regulatory genes and homeotic genesChapters 29/31: Plant Structure and Function. Know phylogeny of plants. Know anatomy of a vascular plant. Know term transpiration,stomata,cavitation,cuticle,lignin, endodermis, mycorrhize. Understand CAM photosynthesis. Know xylem anatomy.
Know phloem anatomy, turgor pressure. Know the differences between phloem and xylemChapters 30/33: Plant Diversity and Reproduction. Know plant diversity; over 90% angiosperms. Earliest land plants evolved 465 mya. Know examples of and characteristics of Bryophytes. Know what sphagnum moss is.
Know what epiphyte is. Know examples and characteristics of vascular seedless plants. Know two groups of seed plants: gymnosperm and angiosperm Know 4 types of gymnosperm; know conifers. Know green algae most closely related to land plants.
Understand Alternation of Generations; know sporophyte, gametophyte, sporangium, gametangium, the entire cycle, which is n or 2n. Bryophytes/nonvascular plants: includes mosses, liverworts, hornworts. Bryophytes have dominant haploid gametophyte with a dependent sporophyte. Know the term sporopollenin.
Know seedless vascular plants: includes ferns, lycophytes; know their characteristics. Seedless vascular plants: sporophyte dominant with small, close to ground gametophytes. Know the life cycle evolution in land plants. Know seed plants: gymnosperms and angiosperms.
Understand the advantages of seeds over spores; know seed structure. Know characteristics of gymnosperms. Know double fertilization of angiosperms; angiosperm seeds with endosperm. Flower anatomyChapter 32: Plant Defense. Plants have developed mechanisms to protect themselves from: viruses, bacteria, fungi, worms, parasitic plants. Pathogens enter plants through damaged tissue or stomata.
Potato Blight. 1st line of defense for plants. Biotrophic pathogens versus necrotrophic pathogens. Parasitic plants. Plant immune systems: basal versus specific. Hypersensitive response.
Systemic acquired resistance. 7 Levels of plant defense. Herbivory. Molecular: terpenoids, phenolics, alkaloids.
Plant compounds used in medicines. Cellular: central vacuoles. Tissue: tough sclenchma fibers. Organ: hairs, spines, silica plates. Organismal: entire physiology. Population:coordinated behavior.
Community: predatory animals. Symbionts of ants and acacia. Constitutive defenses versus inducible defenses